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Food Business

How to Start Event Food Vendor Business

Food Vendor Business

Food vendor business is growing in popularity in Nigeria. Although, anyone can be a food vendor, yet not everyone can have a successful food vendor business. So, in this article, I want to show you how you can have a successful food vendor business and sell anywhere in Nigeria.

One of the unique truths about food vendor business is that you don’t have to be the cook or know how to cook or even have an office or restaurant where you cook. That means what you need is management skills, rather than cooking skills.

That takes us to the next point which is how to really get started in this business? What kind of foods are popular and successful with food vendors? How can a startup food vendor business compete with existing vendors? And what does it really cost to get started?

How Food Vendor Business works

Interestingly, food vendor business is also restaurant business but with a twist. Therefore, a restaurant can also be engage in the services of a food vendor. In other parts of the world, they may mean the same thing. But in Nigeria, food vendor business is a different class of restaurant business.

So, to clarify the difference, it means that Food Vendor Business is regarded as a restaurant business that cooks food on demand – but for a large group of people. This ‘but’ is what also differentiate it from home restaurant business, which is also a food on demand business.

That means, a food vendor is not the same as bukka joint or what Lagosians call ‘Iya-gutter’. That’s a group of food vendors that sell food at street corners or in shanties. However, a home restaurant business also engages in food vendor services. Don’t let the classifications fool you. They are all the same with just different approach to their business model.

A food vendor business takes bulk orders from customers to prepare food on demand. It could be for events like birthdays, weddings or burials – or bulk personal order for home use.

Learn The Business As A Beginner

If you haven’t been in the food business before, take your time to learn how it will all work out for you. You should even use a mentor to learn the ropes. Don’t assume it’s just food business that you will figure things out on your own.

What you learn from someone who’s already in the same business will save you lots of time and money you could have spent wrongly.

Moreover, it’s also a way of learning what your competitors already know that’s making them successful. So, don’t just think it’s about you learning how to cook, rather how to run a successful food vendor business.

If you wondering what kind of Nigeria food sell more in the food vendor business, my answer is rice is every form and recipe.

What Qualifies You to Start This Business?

The beauty of food vendor business is that you don’t even have to know how to cook. So, anyone can start this business if they have passion for food business. However, not knowing how to cook doesn’t mean you can just cook bad food.

No! But you can hire chefs or local cooks to help you out when ever you have orders to fulfill.

Anyone who wishes to Start Food Vendor Business can do so simply by learning how to manage a business. If you can run the business, know how to get customers regularly, and manage the people that help you, then you can run a successful food vendor business.

And the cost of startup is determined by you. It’s best to define your food business structure first, to enable you decide what you are offering and what you would need to offer it. That way, you don’t stock cooking gadgets you may hardly use.

How Lucrative is Food Vendor Business?

One thing you can’t take away from Nigerians is the love for good food. Nigerians love to eat. That’s why one of the requirements of a wife material is knowing how to cook.

Food business is amazingly lucrative. You cant do food business and lose, unless you don’t know what you are doing. It’s a high profit business – where you invest little and your profit margin is insanely awesome. And Nigerians love lavish parties.

However, according to Research and Markets website, the Nigerian food and grocery retail market had total revenues of $45.7 billion in 2020. That’s just for the main raw materials used in making the foods. Now, imagine how much cooked food made in the same year.

Challenges of Food Vendor Business

Before you decide Food Vendor Business is for you, also understand the challenges. The major challenge food vendors face is low patronage because of the target market or lack of proper marketing.

You will also have to deal with low quality Foodstuff. Imitations and low grade foodstuffs are all over the market. Don’t learn the hard way. It’s either you accept some apprenticeship or stick with buying only from major grocery stores.

Another challenge is bad referrals. Food vendor business thrive on referrals from customers who have bought your food or event guests that tasted your food. You should avoid bad referrals at all cost.

While you can deal with these challenges by making adjustments to market well and improve on the taste of your food, you cannot really avoid this last challenge. Travel risk is one challenge you may have to deal with.

If you live in a big city you might restrict your clientele within the city. But if your food is so good, you may not be able to do that, unless you have to disappoint some major customers.

Tips to Start Food Vendor Business

Now that you know you are qualified to Start Food Vendor Business, here are tips to help you get started. I have listed out the following tips for your consideration.

  • Start Cost Effectively And Upgrade As Your Grow
  • Brand Your Food Vendor Business
  • Model Your Food Vendor Business
  • Engage Commission Marketers
  • Build Strong Referral Strategy
  • Offer Professional Food Serving Bonus

You should also craft your food vendor business plan before starting out. If you haven’t done a business plan before, you can read the article on how to write a perfect business plan.

Start Cost Effectively And Upgrade As Your Grow

A lot of startups are primarily concerned about startup cost. I think that shouldn’t be a challenge if you think as a startup. Your first cooking job may not necessarily require high-tech gadgets to meet your order.

Start with what you can afford as a startup and probably upgrade as the need arises. Nobody is going to trust you to cook food for one thousand guests if you are just starting out. Honestly, you shouldn’t even jump to such offer if you haven’t handled 100 guest before.

Grow to meet up your cost. It’s a smarter way to start. You don’t want to mess up your brand by trying to prove you can do it when you know you weren’t prepared for it. Moreover, if you do a business plan, it will also take care your cost Plan for you.



Brand Your Food Vendor Business

One of the big factors of food vendor business success is branding. If your business would grow, branding will make it happen. Therefore, take branding seriously. I know the concern of most startups is usually the cost associated with branding.

But I don’t think branding a food vendor business should cost you much, unless you don’t understanding simple branding techniques. The whole idea of branding is to make your business visibly stand out, easily recognizable, and attractive enough to encourage regular patronage.

Model Your Food Vendor Business

Business models are often misunderstood by most startups. Some think it’s about ideas. A bit of it but more of process and strategy. I recommend that you take this food vendor business and remodel it in your own way.

A lot of us are still amazed at how brands like Uber and Airbnb created their business model out of already existing and age-long business models.

Interestingly, they didn’t do anything unusual or complex. Rather, they simplified a complex process. Taxi couldn’t be done any other way better than it was being done, not until Uber came along.

Engage Commission Marketers

Marketing can be difficult if you don’t know how. But you can leverage the power and influence of others to promote your business. Hire others who can help you with marketing on commission earning.

And there are many internet rats looking for opportunity to earn extra income you can explore.

Build Strong Referral Strategy

Having a strong referral marketing plan would attract more customers than you can possibly handle. But the secret to good referral is nothing but the following:

  • Amazing food taste
  • Your service packaging
  • Branding advantage
  • And marketing plan

I have attended an event where the food vendor, who happen not to have been there because they sent the food through a delivery service, attached a business card to every pack of food. After eating, most of the guests pocketed the card for future reference.

I also realize later that most of the guests used that vendor over and over. I got to know because I also attended their events.

Take advantage of every opportunity given to feed guests in an event to win more referral marketers. Party guests are your main target customers. If you can satisfy them, they will patronize you when they need a food vendor.

Offer Professional Food Serving Bonus

I know this is one of the services regularly offered by food vendors, but you can make yours exquisite. Recruited well trained waiters, and have clean uniforms to stand them out in every event. You can have different uniforms for different occasions. You can even bill high network customer for new uniforms for servers in their event.

Food serving can be provided as a special feature in your business. You can package this as another source of revenue as well.

Define The Target Customer

Even before you start out on your food vendor business, you must first identify all your potential customers. Your target customers shouldn’t be every customer profile for food business.

Be specific. The right way to identify your target customer is to first define your food vendor business model. Your business offer is a better way to determine those who would need your service and can afford the cost.

Let me classify some kind of food vendor customers:

  1. Event planners and managers
  2. Venue owners and managers
  3. Individual event owners

Event managers and venue managers can be your biggest source of attracting high net worth customers. You should target popular events places and approach celebrity event organizers to partner with them.

How to Market Your Food Vendor business

So far, I have shared some referral marketing ideas for your food business, but let me share some direct marketing tips you can use as well. However, your food variety and taste should be the key to your marketing plan.

Also, the best time to market your food vendor business is when ever you are providing food services to your customers. If you do this well, every customer you serve will be a contact point for more customers in the future. And you will never run out customers to serve.

Here are tips to explore:

  • Use your branding so well to promote your business. Make sure everyone who attended events you were hired to cook becomes addicted to your brand.
  • Deliberately give out souvenirs that guests can take home for use
  • Make some take away food packs customized for your clients with your brand
  • Get the master of ceremony to announce the company that made the food. You can achieve this in two ways easily – by making a special food pack for the MC and presenting it to him during the events. You can also request the MC to announce the cook of the event during the program.


Don’t pass over an opportunity when you see one. Even if you don’t like to cook, you like to eat. Let your love for eating drive you to start a food vendor service.

Moreover, your food taste is your signature brand. Carefully craft and maintain the best food recipes. When you are not serving customers, be experimenting on new food recipes you see online.

Finally, your ability to adapt to new food recipes would endear you to more clients. Event owners and organizers are looking for something new and appetizing for their events. You should give them options they didn’t know is there.

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Food Business

How to Start Local Foodstuff Supply Business (2022)

Foodstuff is in high demand now, as consumers struggle to find ways of spending less and getting more foodstuffs. Starting foodstuff supply business can be a lucrative way to earn highly needed daily income in a recession.

Foodstuff supply doesn’t require high capital to Start. It’s also very easy to build strong customer base, especially from close friends, relatives, colleagues at work and online fiends.

You can also make your foodstuff supply business irresistible by offering only hard to find foodstuffs that consumers crave for but hardly find where they live. If you are already a farming some food items, you can also use this model to start selling it directly to consumers in bulk purchase model.

How Foodstuff Supply Business Model Work

For most people, they buy foodstuff in small quantity where ever they want to make a pot of soup or prepare their usual family dishes. But the prevailing economic situation demands otherwise. Consumers want to buy on bulk to save high cost of buying small quantities.

So, some vendors started forming WhatsApp groups and promoting their foodstuff supply business to sell to customers in group buy model. Some group buy would take customers money in advantage to purchase the foodstuff, which it shared according to each customers contribution.

While another model that’s gaining online popularity is the direct bulk sale model to consumers when they want it. While the group buy is good, some customers may not need foodstuff or have money to buy when it’s being advertised.

All that is solved when seller offers foodstuff to customers when ever they can afford to buy – just like they do when they go to the market but in bulk and at a reduced cost.

Tips to Start Foodstuff Supply Business

Starting this Foodstuff supply business be the simplest startup you maybe venturing into. Although, I will still advise that you write down a simple business plan to help guide your ideas.

Furthermore, you will be needing capital. If you are opting for group buy foodstuff supply business model, you may not need any startup capital. But you will need a lot of goodwill from customers who already know and trust you.

See a list of things you should plan for:

  • Startup capital to help you procure Foodstuff in large quantity
  • Decide the kind of foodstuff to supply
  • Create a WhatsApp group or Facebook profile page
  • Get images of foodstuffs you will be selling
  • Define your target market realistically
  • Make logistics arrangement for home deliveries

Note: your Foodstuff supply business will be as good as your customer group.



List of Foodstuffs to Start Selling

I recommend that you pick your foodstuffs carefully. Don’t try to sell every foodstuff out there. Pick what your target market would buy regularly. Another way to pick your foodstuffs is to pick what you can offer at a better discount than market price.

Here are lists of just few of the foodstuffs to give you an idea of what to start supplying:

  • Palm oil
  • Garri
  • Dried fish
  • Tomatoes
  • Frozen fish
  • Fresh fish
  • Stockfish
  • Pepper
  • Onions
  • Crayfish
  • Life or frozen chicken
  • Yam
  • Coco yam
  • Beans

Note: this list is endless. There are so many local foodstuffs one can sell. In fact, the best sellers are not those common foodstuffs but the hard to find ones.

Target Customers for Your Foodstuff Supply Business

You don’t go far to find your customers, but you have to know who to sell to and target those customers. In a group buy, it’s easier to group those you know have average to high monthly income.

These people already buy foodstuffs every time. Your work is to give them discounted bulk offers and they will buy from you. If you do it well, they will start planning with you.

However, to avoid price challenges, you must be honest with your prices. Remember that these customers also go to the market. They will compare your prices and what they are getting. Only sell foodstuffs you are sure you can get better deals than market prices.

How to Promote Your Foodstuff Supply Business

In order to make your Foodstuff supply business work, marketing it regularly is important. While it’s good to promote your Foodstuff supply business, you have to utilize free marketing opportunities. Using paid advertising can equally impact on the cost of your foodstuff.

You have to realize that the first group of customers to patronize you are your close friends and office colleagues. Here are two best ways to promote your foodstuff supply business:

  1. Promote using WhatsApp status
  2. And with Facebook stories

Any other free promotional option is equally good. But these two are most common for the business and works best as well.


You cannot ignore certain truths about Foodstuff supply business model. It’s mostly based on trust. You have to build trust with your customers. And one of the ways to do that is using interactive platforms like Facebook profile page and WhatsApp groups.

Moreover, quality and good measurement is another way to enhance that trust. If your customers observe they are getting better deals from you, they will not only repeatedly buy from you, they will also refer their friends to you.

A farmer can start selling its farm produce using the same foodstuff supply model. Another big way to start earning money from foodstuff business is to Start an online foodstuff store. You will need eCommerce experience to make this work.

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Food Business

How to Start An Online Foodstuff Store (2022)

Foodstuff supply business is thriving both locally and among diasporas. Starting an online foodstuff store could be one unique idea whose opportunity has come. If you are looking for an online business you can start, online foodstuff store is highly profitable.

There’s high demand for local foodstuff among diaspora Nigerians living in Europe, America and Asia. The cost of buying local foodstuffs in those countries are skyrocketing everyday.

There are over 203 million diaspora Nigerians. It’s a huge market for anyone who can provide them with their favorite foodstuffs in a most effective ordering system they can trust. That way Nigerians anywhere in the world can order a bowl of fufu and expect it in 24 hours anywhere around the world.

You can tap into this opportunity to sell foodstuffs directly to both Nigerians at home and Nigerians in diaspora using the internet.

How Online Foodstuff Store Work

This online Foodstuff model is not different from the regular foodstuff business model but it introduces the eCommerce model to make it 24 hours operation. You are simply using eCommerce as a platform to sell your foodstuffs.

The only challenge you have is that you need to build your own eCommerce store for it. There are no global eCommerce platform that’s offering Nigerian local foodstuffs you can leverage. If you can find one that would be good, and takes away the burden of creating your own platform.

Interestingly, it’s no longer a complex idea to build successful eCommerce store. Even if you don’t know anything about eCommerce website design, you can hire a web developer or simply create your Foodstuff store on Shopify.

Another way to start your online Foodstuff Store might be using Facebook marketplace or Google My Business.

Tips to Start Online Foodstuff Store

There are key things you should consider when starting an online Foodstuff Store. Let me list some of the most important once for a startup.

  • You need to find a niche Foodstuff idea
  • Partner with quality foodstuff vendors
  • Have a strong marketing plan
  • Have an affordable logistics plan
  • Create a strong social media followers
  • Start branding from day one

Niche Foodstuff Store Idea

For a start, don’t stretch your business too thin by trying to offer more foodstuff varieties. Customers may demand you to do so and even lure you with promises to patronize you. Pick your niche Foodstuff idea and start with them.

It’s better to be known for something than to be known for nothing specific. Don’t be a jack of all trade from the very beginning. Start with just few and learn as you grow. Remember, mistakes will be made at every beginning in any business. Make yours in small sizes so you can recover from it easily.

Partner with Foodstuff Vendors

As a beginner, you may not understand some international standard requirements for exporting foodstuffs from Nigeria. Use good vendors who understand the business better than you. Learn from them before going fully to do it on your own.

Foodstuff Marketing Plan

Online Foodstuff Store is different from just running Foodstuff group buy on WhatsApp or Facebook. You need to advertise your foodstuff store since your main target customers are not your friends, colleagues and immediate family members.

Your marketing plan must be solid to work, and must be targeted at the rich customers to avoid wasting advert money reaching the wrong audience.

Foodstuff Logistics Plan

Since it’s an online store, you have to plan for logistics like delivery. You have to also know what the key selling point of your online foodstuff store really is. If you ask me, I would say “DELIVERY”.

Although, foodstuff remains your product, but that’s not majorly why customers may choose to buy from you. They can equally buy from any other foodstuff vendor. But an online Foodstuff Store would guarantee better logistics arrangement for international customers. That’s why they may buy from you.

Social Media Fanbase

Trust is one thing the internet doesn’t have in abundance. You need social media followers to help you build trust and referrals.

Work seriously on growing strong social media followers. But keep the growth within your target market. A strong social media will help you communicate regularly with your customers, build familiarity and increase trust level.

Start Branding From Day One

One of the ways to build trust online is by having a strong brand. Customers easily identify with brands. Keep your focus on branding your foodstuff store from day one. It will pay off eventually.

Branding will help you to set standards that would make your customers trust you more. It’s not just about logo but it includes your process, standard and communication.

Target Customers For Online Foodstuff Store

For online Foodstuff Store, your target customers would exceed beyond Nigerians home and abroad. You will find many citizens of other African countries patronizing most of your Nigerian foodstuff.

For a start and to help your marketing, just pick to target Nigeria customers. However, depending on your capacity and logistics provisions, you can pick either Nigerians at home or Nigerians abroad. If you can pick both target customers that would be huge for your business.

Selling to Nigerians abroad is the best customers to target with online foodstuff store. They have limited options of where to buy foodstuffs. But Nigerians at home may not offer good customer patronage because they have several places to buy.

What may attract local customers may be the quality of your foodstuffs. Since you will be exporting them outside of the country, the quality must be best and meets all international standard for foodstuff packaging.

How to Promote Your Online Foodstuff Business

There are several ways you can begin promoting your foodstuff store. Unlike foodstuff supply business idea, you have to make provision for marketing fund. The idea is to promote your store, which can pay for the advertising cost overtime. That way you are not under any financial stress to recover your advert cost from sales markup.

But you should only use mediums your target customers are frequently using. You should understand cost per customer when spending on advert.

Here are possible advertising platforms you can use to promote your online foodstuff store to reach the right target customers, whether they are locally or globally. However, the platform you decide to use for your store may have some advertising benefits as well.

For example, if you are using Facebook marketplace for your foodstuff store, Facebook advertising may benefit you more, it offers low cost per customer because its platform feature. While Google my Business marketplace would give you some organic search traffic benefits as well.

Moreover, building social media following is an important marketing tool. Instead of creating a page, use the normal profile page. This will ensure that every of your post is seen by most of your followers without restriction.


Online Foodstuff Store business is a lucrative opportunity. Many Nigerians in diaspora are already paying high cost for foodstuffs, and won’t mind buying it directly from a Nigerian online foodstuff store and have it delivered to them half way around the world.

But you must create a high standard services to match their appetite for high class service delivery.

Remember, starting well may include doing all the necessary planning – like packaging a business plan for your online foodstuff store. If you want world class business, start with world class mentality.

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Farming Business

How to Start Your Own Cassava Production

Cassava production is easy. You cannot talk about Cassava production without involving the farming aspect. It only involves you planting stems in the ground that would grow well even without making ridges.

My mom, one day, got several cassava stems and planted them in the garden space we had and some months later, we harvested more than I imagined we would.

Do you know cassava would thrive anywhere in Nigeria as long as there is sunlight and adequate rain. That’s why Nigeria remains a major producer of cassava in Africa.

But the bigger business in Cassava farming in the production. It’s as far as your imagine can go. However, I’m only going to start you off here with what’s basic now.

✅ Understanding Cassava Production

Cassava is one of the topmost consumed foods by Nigerians. Cassava production businesses not only makes food produce available but also products like animal feed, glucose, alcohol and fertilizer.

Moreover, cassava can be made into starch which can be used to make textiles and paper. It can replace wheat flour for bread and cakes, ethanol for biofuel, modified to fructose to sweeten drinks, and made into local foods: fufu, akpu, garri. The list is unimaginable.

Yet, the cassava production business is something that can be done by anyone. Although, it can be part of cassava farming business but it’s more of a production part of cassava business.

✅ Is cassava farming and production profitable in Nigeria?

Cassava farming is profitable in Nigeria. Its compatibility with the soil and its demand in Nigeria has resulted in it being available in large amounts. Also, Nigeria is among the countries that produce the most cassava. Our soil agrees with it and we consume it as a staple food.

The high demand for cassava makes it a good commodity to sell. You can also export your products to other countries.

You can venture into producing these cassava into different raw materials and finished products

✅ Some Cassava Products

  • The leaves are vegetable chock full of nutrients like protein.
  • The roots, while still unpeeled, can be dried to make animal feed.
  • The stems can also be sold and the roots converted to various end products.

✅ How Much Cassava Farms Make

A tons of cassava can be sold for N25,000 – N35,000. It sometimes goes up to N50,000 at the beginning of the year. This rate is high due to the cost of farming and would be lesser if cassava processing machines are utilized more by farmers. The price is estimate and may change with time due to different factors.

✅ Tips to Setup Cassava Production

If you are thinking how can you start a cassava production business in Nigeria, here’s your guide. But the first step could be to choose with aspect of the Cassava value chain you would like to start from. While the first chain is the Cassava farm. Its highly advisable to start from the beginning of the chain.

Buying cassava from farmers for your production maybe wise if you lack the land needed for farming. But on a long run, farming the cassava yourself makes more sense profit wise.



✅ Get the Capital

Do a feasibility study to assess the merits and demerits of the business. Afterwards, formulate a feasibility plan for your business and get the capital needed.

The plan has to come first because it involves putting down your ideas about how you want your business to go, its size, how you plan to get the capital, the equipment you need and all information necessary about your business.

✅ Siting of Farm

Cassava thrives in loamy soil and much less in sandy or clay soils. It can survive in a drought but requires sufficient rainfall to grow as it should.

The farmland should be situated close to the market. Not just any market but one where cassava is sold and in demand. If to be processed, it should near the plant

To increase the land’s productivity, some agricultural procedures can be done to prepare the land before the planting of the cassava stems.

  • Manure: waste from animals and dead crops are a good source of manure. This would add nutrients to the soil, improving its productivity.
  • Mulching: mulching involves covering the top of ridges with dead vegetation. These are called mulch. Examples of mulch are legumes’ foliage, husks of rice.
  • Inter-cropping: intercropping with crops like legumes add to or increase the cultivation of the crops. Legumes add nitrogen to the soil, enriching it. Other intercrops that can be used are maize and rice.
  • Choose the best cassava species: choose the best of the cassava species you can find for maximum production and harvest. The kind of cassava it is would affect its growth which is why getting the best is expedient. Aside from good growth, get one that has disease resistance, matures fast, is edible and can stay in the ground as it matures without getting spoiled.

How many acres do you need for a start? One acre, one hectare, get a land your budget can sufficiently carry. You don’t even need to buy. It can be leased.

✅ Planting

You need to till the land first before planting anything. The stems should be planted afterwards with two-thirds of them in the ground.

Plant early in the planting season so that the cassava crops get as much water as they can from the rain.

Over 14 – 19 tons of cassava can be harvested in a hectare of land.
To conserve the land’s nutrients so that the cassava crops can get the most of them, weeding is mandatory.

✅ Harvest

As the crops mature, they can be harvested.
This is the first stage in the processing of cassava flour. Harvest can be done with manual labour or by harvesters.
Harvest takes place about 7 – 10 months after planting the cassava.

The top part of the cassava stem with leaves is cut leaving a shorter lower part in the ground. The lower part of the stem is then pulled out to bring the cassava roots or crops to the top of the soil and then the roots are separated from the stem.

The cassava stems are harvested too and kept in a shelter to protect them from rain and prevent rot. They can be sold or kept for the next planting season.

✅ Processing the Produce

The process of converting cassava into garri for example has 4 processes aside from harvesting: peeling, grating, sieving, frying. In the peeling process, the skin of the cassava tubers is peeled with knives manually or with the use of peeling machines.

The grating process involves the grating, shredding of the tubers into much smaller pieces. It can also be done manually or with a grating machine. And the grated cassava is sieved to extract the cassava flour needed to make garri in the sieving process. A sieving machine or mesh can be used.

After the cassava flour has been collected, it is fried to dehydrate it. The frying machine is faster especially if the product is a lot and for commercial purposes.

Afterwards, cassava flour is packaged to be marketed and consumed.

✅ Marketing

The marketing of your cassava produce would be straightforward if your farm is situated in a location where cassava is in demand. You can decide to sell it as raw produce to processing industries or in the processed form to the market.

To reach other locations apart from yours, you will need to spread the word about your market online, on social media, flyers with your brand defined on them. You should also have a website with your brand’s name and logo.

✅ Startup Cost And Requirements

The cost of starting cassava farming in Nigeria can be about N100,000. It includes the necessary expenses: renting, leasing or buying land, land preparation, fertilizer, cassava stems, herbicides and weeding.

The startup cost can reduce with the size you choose to start with and the availability of necessary items.

You must have a budget included in your business plan which would comprise of all that you would be getting so that you would spend according to your budget and not overshoot or leave something out.

✅ Challenges of Cassava Production Business

The following are the challenges of cassava production business in Nigeria:

  • Diseases include root rots, cassava mosaic disease, cassava anthracnose disease, cassava bud necrosis, cassava bacterial blight and mealybugs.
  • Pests
  • Poor quality of soil
  • Market accessibility: the bulk of cassava may cause transportation to be more strenuous especially in areas with bad roads and a poor transport system. A bicycle for example would present the individual conveying them with a lot of stress.
  • Overuse of fertilizers
  • Livestock damage

Preventive measures can reduce the chances of these challenges. They include:

  • Use of good cuttings for planting. Do not plant cuttings with obvious signs of disease.
  • Crops vulnerable to nematodes must not be used as intercrops.
  • Do not delay harvesting.
  • Space the crops properly.
  • Clean equipment for planting before use.
  • Space the crops properly. They should be as separate from each other as they need to be.
  • Waterlogged land that is closer to water or land that was previously infested is not a good land choice.

✅ Conclusion

Finally, do you have questions unanswered by this article? You can drop me a enquiries in the comment box below. However, consider this article a beginner guide to identifying the key areas of starting your own cassava production business.

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Start A Business

Nigerian Best Sheep Farming Guide For 2022

Sheep farming business is an enterprise that not only provides meat, milk and fur but also improves the health of its consumers.

Sheep is one of the major sources of meat in Nigeria. Many homes include meat in their foods. This and its many benefits and taste places it in high demand.

Sheep meat is a source of protein, healthy fats, iron, phosphorus, selenium, potassium, vitamin B, vitamin K and many other minerals and vitamins.

Sheep is in high demand in Nigeria. During festive seasons, Muslim festive seasons, in particular, the demand for rams increase on a massive scale. Just some days ago during the Sallah season where the roads were busier because rams were being displayed and sold by the roadsides, the prices of rams went up in this period.

The females, ewes are usually kept for breeding while the male, rams are usually reared to be sold.

Why Start a Sheep Farming Business?

Why should you start a sheep farming business in Nigeria? Sheep stay together in a flock. Sheep rearing is easy and they are easy to manage since they stay together and you do not have to run around chasing stray sheep.

They reach maturation early. Ewes attain maturity at about 6-8 months of age. It takes rams 10-12 months to grow and enter full maturity.

The cost of catering for sheep is not overwhelming. Vaccinations, good feed, clean water, a clean environment and exercise would keep them in good health.

Sheep are resistant to certain diseases. The west African dwarf breed, for example, shows resistance to sleeping sickness.

However, they need to be vaccinated against diseases that affect them. An example is Rinderpest. These vaccines are cheap and do not take up a large part of necessary expenses.

How Much You Require to Start

The amount required to start a sheep farming business should cover the land and housing, sheep, feed, feeding equipment and so on.

It depends on how many sheep you are starting with. And how big you’re starting. A female sheep costs around N15000-N20000 and a male costs about N20000-N25000.

Starting with 2 ewes and a ram would mean spending 50000 -65000 naira to get the sheep. Housing costs would reduce if you already have land or space that can be converted to a sheep house.

How Much Can You Earn?

The price of sheep in Nigeria ranges from N40000-N80000. Selling price differs with breed and size. The price can increase during Muslim celebrations, like Sallah for example.



How to Build Sheep House

Sheep cannot stand being wet, therefore, they need shelter, a house that is well ventilated and keeps them from the rain and direct contact with the sun and other elements of nature.

A rectangular house with an open side covered with fencing net to allow for ventilation, keep the sheep together and prevent thieves from entry.

The pen should be 2-3 meters in height with an overhang of about 1 meter at least.

The grazing area where the sheep feed should be fenced to prevent a sheep from wandering away like the biblical lost sheep.

The Best Foods for Sheep

● Grasses
● Hay
● Grains
● Maize chaff
● Concentrates
● Wheat offal
● Haulms (stalks or stems of crops)
● Groundnut cake
● Legumes

Moreover, sheep need constant feed and water. There is no measured amount of food that they should have but there is a known need for constant feed and water, clean water which should be made available at all times. The water should be checked and refilled when it is finished or poured out by the sheep.

Profitable Sheep Breeds to Farm

There are four common breeds of sheep for sheep farming business in Nigeria: the Uda, Balami, Yankasa, and the West African dwarf breeds.

Each sheep breed is said to thrive when they are reared in their place of origin or somewhere with similar weather and climate to where they originate from than in a different place. This means that if a sheep originates from Oyo state, it can thrive if it is reared in Osun state.

In addition to the four common sheep breeds found in Nigeria, there is the Sudanese breed which originates from Sudan.

Uda Breed

They have large drooping ears. The rams have large spiral horns which are usually not found in the ewes.

This breed is found predominantly in the Sahel-Sudan vegetation zone and the northwest part of Nigeria. The colour of the coat can be brown or black from its forehead to its midsection while the posterior end is white.

Uda breed is known to thrive in a hot and dry climate and performs much less in a different climate. It has a good adaptation to grazing extensively. At maturity, ewes weigh 35-45 kg while rams weigh 45-55 kg.

Balami Breed

Is commonly found in the northeast region of Nigeria. Are tall. Have droopy large ears. They have prominent horns which are usually absent in females. Their tails are long and they are hairy and have a white coat of fur all over, unlike the Uda breed. They have a dewlap skin fold around their neck.

Yankasa Breed

This breed of sheep is typically found in the northern part of Nigeria. They are smaller in size than Uda and Balami breeds. The colour of their coat can be brown, white, or spotted with black or white.

Yankasa breed has a white coat that has black patches around the ears, eyes, feet and muzzle. The rams have a hairy mane and horns which are curved. At maturity, ewes weigh 25-40 kg while the rams weigh 35-50 kg.

West African Dwarf Breed

Dwarf Breed are much smaller than the other breeds. They are found in the southern part of Nigeria. The colour of their coat ranges from black, brown, white or white-spotted with brown or black. This breed is said to show resistance to trypanosomiasis– sleeping sickness.

At maturity, ewes weigh about 20-25 kg while rams weigh about 25-30 kg.

Sudanese Breed

These are imported breeds from Sudan. Have short horns and can be without horns, but large and have a large tail. They produce milk in large amounts.

The Best Time for Breeding

Ewes are mature at about 6-8 months of age. Rams enter full maturity at about 10-12 months. The best time for breeding is when the ram and ewe have both reached maturity.

Sheep have a gestation period that spans approximately 147 days. The heat period lasts for 17-18 days. They give birth to 1-2 lambs per birth (also called lambing) and are capable of producing 3 young ones but rarely do so.

For optimal breeding performance, it is advised to have sheep and rams in the ratio of 7:1 or 10:1. You can start with a sheep and a ram if you have a lower budget.

However, to keep them healthy, sheep should be dewormed 3 times a year at least. The sheep should also be vaccinated against the disease called Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) every year.


Since sheep is in high demand, more sheep farmers are summoned for. Would you like to be involved in the lucrative business of rearing sheep in Nigeria?

Finally, let me know in the comments your answer and your questions. Learn more on how to start a sheep farming business, roll up your sleeves and build your business.

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Farming Business

Grasscutter Farming Guide For Nigeria (2022)

Do you know that grasscutter farming is one of the livestock businesses in Nigeria that require low cost but has big returns on your investment?

Grasscutter meat has risen among other sources of meat and now ranks among the most anted source of meat in Nigeria. This is understandable due to its many benefits and taste. However, there is a larger demand than supply.

Grasscutter farming is the business of breeding grasscutters for their meat and by-products (for example, their faeces for fertilisers).

Grasscutters are also referred to as cane rats. This is because sugarcane is one of their beloved foods. If you are going to be very successful as a grasscutter farmer, farm sugarcane too.

Interestingly, grasscutters are rodents. They are much larger than common rats and live in bushes. Rats however are found in houses and their surroundings.

Grasscutter meat, among other grasscutter products, is in high demand. It contains a low amount of cholesterol and a high amount of essential nutrients. They are easy to breed. They mature early at about 5-6 months. Their gestation period is about 22 weeks and one female can produce roughly 12 offspring’s in a year.

Why Start a Grasscutter Farm?

See some of the reasons to start your own grasscutter farming right at your back yard, without investing in farm lands and costly housing kits.

Health Benefits

Grasscutter meat is found among the class of meat referred to as white meat. It has much-reduced fat and cholesterol levels. It is high in protein. Also, grasscutter meat reduces the risks of hypertension by preventing some of the factors which cause it like high cholesterol and obesity.

Another Stream of Income

Grasscutter farming is an agricultural business that is not only profitable but also brings you passive income. You don’t have to do so much work since they do not require much attention.

Ease in Farming Grasscutters

That grasscutters do not need much attention does not mean that you can or should neglect them. Grasscutters need food and water daily and regular checkups to examine them for signs of sickness and keep them healthy.

They can be left alone by themselves after being provided for so that you can attend your other job if you are not doing it full time.



Low Starting Cost and Risks

You don’t need so much money to start a grasscutter business. It only needs to cover the necessities and then you are good to go. You can even start it at your back yard. Cost of building shelter or cage for grasscutters is minimal. You can construct it yourself if you are technically inclined.

They Are Fruitful and Multiply Early

Grasscutters become mature as they attain 5-6 months of age. Some even mature much early than 5 months and are ripe for breeding. This depends majorly on their breed and how well they are cared for.

It takes approximately 22 weeks for female grasscutters to carry their younglings. This means they can produce grasscutter babies twice in one year. Your breeding target should be calculated by the number of breeders you farm.

Each birth can yield about 5-7 grasscutters which means a single female grasscutter can birth 10-14 grasscutters in one year.

Increased and Increasing Demand

Due to the benefits of grasscutter meat and its recommendations by people in the health sector, the demand for grasscutter meat has risen.

This demand would continue to increase as more people find out about its benefits. You can equally farm grasscutters for your personal needs.

How Much You Require to Start

This depends on the size you’re starting with. Factors that determine the startup cost:

  • Getting a mature doe(female) and a buck(male). A mature doe costs about N14,000 and a matured buck is about N12,000.
  • The housing – should be such that gives the room enough to move around and nit confide them to static position.
  • Feeding, cleaning and other necessary equipment
  • Feed
  • Checkups by a veterinary doctor

A small scale farm would cost about N50,000-N80,000 to setup. It can cost less if you have the housing or the necessary equipment ready.

Pick Your Grasscutter Farming Method

Commercial grasscutter farming can be performed in two ways:

  1. Deep litter method
  2. Cage method

Deep Litter Method

This involves putting some grasscutters in a house, in a single space.

This can be done efficiently well with a minimal number of grasscutters. The grasscutter house should be spacious to allow the grasscutters to move around freely and have space to themselves.

Cage Method

This method involves keeping grasscutters in cages or hutches. This method keeps a reduced number of grasscutters in each cage. A colony (4 females and 1 male) can occupy a cage or the grasscutters can be separated so that individual grasscutters occupy a cage.

How to Build a Grasscutter House

Housing in grasscutter farming is very important.
It must allow ventilation, light and have enough space for the animals.

The grasscutter cage should also have structures like light bulbs and waterproof covers that can protect the animals from rain and cold.

Building materials should be made of quality materials. Bamboo and wood can be chewed on, so they’re not efficient choice materials.

A grasscutter house is usually and popularly built with metal.

Grasscutters are clean animals. The grasscutter house should be built so that there is a separate space for feeding and a separate one for resting.

To allow for breeding, grasscutters should be kept in a colony. A grasscutter colony has 4 females and 1 male. This method is good since the presence of a male stimulates ovulation in females and the presence of more than one male with a female would provoke fights.

In a situation where a huge grasscutter needs to be moved around, a squeeze cage should be available. It should be about the size of the grasscutter and should not allow much movement.

A squeeze cage facilitates the easy handling of grasscutters of various sizes. The size of the cage should be tailored to fit the size of the grasscutter.

Also, trays for feeding and drinking should be made heavy so that the grasscutters cannot displace them.

The Best Grasscutter Foods

Grasscutters eat sugarcane, legumes, guinea grass, elephant grass, peels of tuber crops (e.g. cassava) and outer coverings of fruits like pineapple and mango.

They can also be given concentrate to supply them with more nutrients and balance their diet. Some concentrates are made of only one ingredient. This would not give the animals all the nutrients they need so it should be rotated with other feeds.

Other concentrates are made from multiple ingredients and can be fed to the grasscutters constantly. The feed should be placed in the feeding container and not the floor to prevent the grasscutters from stepping on the food and soiling it with their fasces.

You can feed your grasscutters two or three times daily. Feeding the grasscutters should be consistent every day. If you would feed them in the afternoons by 2 pm, keep up with that.

A baby grasscutter depends on the mother for milk. And when it is about 6 weeks old, it is ready to be weaned.

What’s The Best Time to Start Breeding?

You can start anytime. As long as you have the money to start and the necessities are available; food and housing, and others. Another best time is tomorrow. You can start with one male and one female.

Managing Diseases And Environment Conditions

Grasscutters are prone to certain diseases which are described below. These diseases can be prevented by proper care for the grasscutters and by regularly checking them up.

Their surroundings should be kept clean and dry. Leftover food and food that is spilt out of the feeding container should be removed before a new one is placed.

Ecto and Endoparasites

Ticks and fleas are ectoparasites commonly found on grasscutters. Endoparasites like worms also trouble grasscutters. These worms are attracted to wet areas. Constant deworming of the grasscutters would keep these worms in check.


Is a common disease that attacks grasscutters. It is caused by Diplococus Pneumonate which is a bacteria. This bacteria is abundant in cold seasons. Grasscutters should therefore be kept as warm as possible during cold seasons.


Coccidiosis is caused by a protozoan. It causes tiredness, appetite loss and diarrhoea in grasscutters.


Is caused by Staphylococcus Aureus which is a bacteria. It causes discharges in the vagina and nose of the grasscutters.


Grasscutter business is another lucrative business that you can own and make yours. Are you going to start your grasscutter business, if yes, do contact us for consultation and guidance. If you have more questions, let me know in the comment.

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Farming Business

How to Start Rabbit Farming Profitably In 2022

Rabbit farming business is a business that has a high booming capacity. Rabbit farming, also called cuniculture, refers to the keeping of rabbits for their meat, fur and byproducts.

A business of rearing rabbits, furry animals such as the one which led Alice down the rabbit hole to Wonderland.

Rabbit farming is the commercial rearing of rabbits, primarily for sales purposes. You can rear a single breed or diverse kinds of breeds.

Rabbit meat is the major reason why Nigerian rabbit farmers breed them. Little attention is placed on their fur. The meat is among the meats classified as white meat. As the importance of rabbit farming in Nigeria continues to spread to more people, its high demand would continue to increase.

So, is rabbit farming a profitable business in Nigeria? Yes. Rabbits are not expensive to breed, unlike some other livestock animals. You don’t spend much on them and you get ample profit.

Why Start a Rabbit Farming Business?

Here are my 6 reasons why you should start a rabbit farm business:

  • They can care for themselves

Of course, you need to provide food for them since they are caged and cannot get food themselves. But rabbits can be left alone after they have been provided for. This characteristic of rabbits allows you to attend to your other job if you are a part-time rabbit keeper.

  • For Their By-products

Did you know that rabbit urine is used as a pesticide and a fertilizer? Rabbit’s urine contains nitrogen and therefore enriches the soil and crops and due to its pungent smell, it repels insect pests.

  • Doesn’t require a large amount as a start-up

Rabbit farming, like grasscutter farming, is referred to as called micro livestock farming and do not need much startup cost.

  • High Reproduction rate

Rabbits have a gestation of about 31 days after which a female rabbit produces two to twelve younglings. Due to its short gestation period, a female rabbit can produce offspring up to seven times in one year!

  • Benefits to health

As I mentioned earlier, rabbits are a source of white meat which has been known for its health benefits.

It is said to have low-calorie levels, preventing weight gain and hypertension.

  • Early maturation

Rabbits enter the maturity stage at about 5-6 months old. Some farmers however suggest that male rabbits are left to enter their first year before they are bred.

This is said to allow for the production of quality offspring.



How much to Earn from Rabbit Farming?

The amount you earn from each rabbit largely depends on their age and breed. You can sell a rabbit at the rate of N1500 to about N9000.

How Much You Require to Start

The amount of money you need to start your rabbit farming business depends on 3 major factors:

● The rabbit’s breed
● The number of rabbits you are starting with
● Getting a rabbit house

The cost ranges from N45,000-N100,000 with N100,000 being the highest amount you would have to spend. It can cost more if you want to start on a large scale.

Pick Your Rabbit Farming Method

Rabbits can be reared in a cage method or deep litter method.

Deep Litter Method

● This method is efficient if you will be raising a few rabbits.
● You can keep up to 30 rabbits in one house in the deep litter method. Males should be kept apart from the females till it is time to breed.
● The floor of the house should be made of concrete and should be covered with dry wood shavings or straw.
● There is a higher risk in this method than in the cage method. Make sure to start with a little number, gain experience and see how it goes and then increase their number.

Cage Method

● The animals are reared in a cage in this method. This method of rabbit farming is more efficient for a commercial business.
● You can raise as many rabbits as you want with this method with the animals spaced out in different cages.
● This method allows the rabbits enough space and food in their cage.
● The females and males also need to be separated from each other until it is time for breeding.

Rabbit Farming Business Plan in Nigeria

A business plan is important in planning your business. If you want to get a loan to start your business, you will have to show the lender something, proof that you know what you are doing and that profit would come from the business so that you can pay them back.

The business plan should describe your business, how it would be funded, expected profit, how the marketing part would go, and all that your business needs and would be about.

There are samples of business plans to guide you in making yours.

How To Build Rabbits’ House

A rabbit house (hutch or cage) should have good ventilation, be protected by a shade and be out of the way of people passing by or noise.

The rabbit house needs a windbreaker, like a tree so that when it gets windy they would be protected from massive amounts of wind. They also need protection from rain during rainy seasons.

You should consider the following when buying or building a rabbit house:

● The size

How many rabbits do you want to start with? This would determine the size of the cage that you get.

● The type

Is the rabbit house outdoor or indoor? This would determine the material that is used to make the cage. If the cage is placed outdoors, a wooden cage would not be efficient. It would get weaker as the rain beats it.

● The material used

A majority of the rabbit houses currently are built with metal, wood and even plastic. Now, as I said earlier, the material used to build the cage depends on the exposure of the cage to the natural elements(sun and rain).

Aside from natural elements determining the type of cage, choose a cage that would not give you issues when you clean. It should be easy to clean.

Many rabbit houses have floors made of wire and a removable pan under them for easy removal of waste.

Rabbits can however develop sore feet (hocks) because they stand and walk on the wire floors all day long.

This can be reduced by covering a part of the floor with something solid, like wood. This wood would be a resting spot for the rabbits and reduce the possibility of them developing sore feet.

The Best Foods for Rabbits

The rate at which a rabbit eats is determined by the breed and of course, the age. Rabbits eat green vegetables, cucumber, carrots and grass, among others. They can also be fed with remnants of food from your house.

Rabbits need variation in their feed. They need assorted food choices. This would ensure that they get the necessary nutrients that they need for growth and health.

As you add new foods to their diet, give them a small amount of the new food daily and check for how they react to it. When they have adapted to the food you can increase its quantity to the amount that they need.

When you give the rabbits their food make sure to place the flood in their feeder, not on the floor. Since they would be wandering around their cage, they can walk all over their food and ruin it with their fasces. Remove the unfinished food from the previous feeding when you go to give them more food.

Rabbits eat less than they eat at night. This is majorly caused by the heat of the day. They are more active at night and so they consume more food. If you would be feeding your rabbits with concentrate along with the other foods, you can give concentrates in the mornings and others in the evenings. Along with the food, they need clean water.

Profitable Rabbits Breeds to Farm

Some of the profitable grasscutter breeds are listed below with what they are reared for.

● Californian: Meat
● Satin: Fur and Meat
● White New Zealand: Fur and meat
● New Zealand: Meat
● Champagne d’Argent: Meat
● American Chinchilla: Fur
● Silver Martens: Fur
● English Spot: Meat and Lab
● Checkered Giants: Fur
● Rex: Fur
● Angora: Fur and Meat

You would not find all these breeds in your area. Choose the best among the ones available to you to start your grasscutter business.

The Best Time to Start Breeding

Cold weather is more favorable for rabbits than hot weather. However, to be able to create more body heat, they need additional food. Their body heat is caught by their fur, allowing them to stay warm.

Hot weather is less bearable for the rabbits. They would require your help to stay cool. Hot weather can result in overheating in the rabbits which can result in tiredness, low productivity, and even death.

Unlike during the cold weather, rabbits reduce their consumption of food but not to the point that they take just little worrying amounts.

Heat can be reduced by giving the animals cool water to drink, taking them out of their cages and underneath a tree’s shade, and placing fans with them.


Rabbit farming is a business you should consider if you want to start an agricultural business. I hope this article answered your questions. Do you have more questions? Drop it in the comment box.

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Farming Business

How to Start Goat Farming For Beginners

Goat farming business is one of the most popular livestock businesses in Nigeria. Some people rear two or more goats for personal benefit while some rear for business.

Goat farming business involves the raising and rearing of goats on a small or large scale.

Goats are on high demand for their meat, especially their head, in many restaurants. Goat heads are used to make a soup called ‘Isi ewu’.

Goats are one of the major sources of meat in Nigeria. They are used to celebrate many festivals including Christmas, Salah, weddings, birthdays and many other occasions.

Goats are easy to rear and do not require much attention. For small scale farming, they can be reared in a compound, while a large scale farming would require more land space.

This business is definitely one you can do on the side along with your full-time work.

Is Goat Farming Profitable?

Goat farming is a lucrative business and goats are easy to rear. Their meat is widely eaten across the country and is therefore in high demand.

Since goat meat is a highly required commodity, you can’t go wrong with starting your own goat farm.

How Much Goat Farmers Make

Goat farms need little investment to start but the profit, in the end, is much more than the investment.

This profit is gotten from the meat and the milk for meat-producing and milk-producing goat farms respectively.
Profits can also be gotten from their byproducts which includes droppings, skin, hair and bones.

Tips to Start Goat Farming



Your Business Plan:

Planning is very important, especially in the beginning. How much are you intending to pour in the business? Are you going small scale or large scale? (It’s advisable to start with a small scale business if you’re just starting).

What are you rearing the goats for? Meat, milk or both? Have a plan that covers what your farm entails before you begin.

Get Knowledge:

Get the necessary knowledge you need to run your goat farm. Getting knowledge is important so that you don’t fall for little and avoidable mistakes.

Learn how to take care of the goats, their reproduction and gestation period, symptoms of diseases, and how to properly care for them.

Find A Good Land :

The location of the land for the farm must have pasture available or must be close to pasture. The farm must also have enough space to allow the goats roam freely. A spacious farm allows for less possibility of the spread of diseases.

Construct Infrastructures:

Sheds must also be built to keep the goats together when it’s dark, raining or when the sun is harsh. Since goats move in groups, it’s not advisable to separate them in different spaces or sheds.

Other infrastructure like fences to prevent the goats from getting lost and intruders from getting in, constant water supply, lodging house(s) that can accommodate you or your farm workers, should be made available before the arrival of your goats.

Get A Good Breed:

Get a good breed of goats. If you’d be rearing goats for their meat, get a breed that produces more meat and if you’d be rearing for milk, get a breed that produces milk abundantly.

Goat Feed:

Goats feed on pasture. It’s their original choice of food. Therefore, your goat farm must have pasture. You can plant grasses on your land or arrange for a nearby land where it is approved and favourable for your goats to graze.

There are also healthy processed goat feeds you can buy to feed the goats exclusively or along with pasture.

Get A Veterinary Doctor:

Goats need medical check-ups by a Vet doctor once in a while to check and confirm that they’re in good health and to quickly identify sick goats and separate them from healthy ones.


As your goats mature, discover markets and the market prices so that you have an idea of how much they are worth before you take them to the market for sale.

Startup Cost And Requirements

The startup cost must be sufficient to acquire a good land with good pasture, facilities needed for the smooth run of the farm and the purchase of the goats.

Types of Goat Species to Farm in Nigeria

There are several species of goats reared in Nigeria. These species include both local breeds which are resident in the country and adaptable breeds from other countries.

Local breeds include:

  1. African dwarf
  2. Maradi/Red Sokoto
  3. Pygmy
  4. Sahelian

Foreign breeds includes:

  1. Boer
  2. Saanen
  3. Nubian
  4. Alpine
  5. Toggenburg
  6. Jamnapari

Which Breed of Goat is Most Profitable?

The most profitable species of goats to rear for meat is the Boer breed. This breed, unlike most breeds, can produce a good amount of meat even at a year old. It weighs about 300 pounds when mature. Australia is the top exporter of Boer meat.

The Saanen breed is the best goat species for milk production. A mature Saanen goat can produce 1-3 gallons of milk in one day.

Challenges of Goat farming Business

Outbreak of Disease:

Diseases are a major challenge for livestock farms, including goat farms. These diseases include brucellosis, coccidiosis and salmonellosis, among others.

Diseases can be prevented by regular vaccination and deworming. Routine checks by veterinary doctors would also limit the spread of diseases. During these checks, weak animals and ones with visible signs of a disease would be separated from the rest

Limited Access to Pasture:

This problem may arise in certain areas where there is low availability of pasture or during certain seasons like the dry season.

This problem can be tackled by growing a pasture in your farm and consistently watering it during the dry season.


Goat farming business is easy to run and needs little attention and labour. Despite its simplicity, this business has good returns. So, you get the ease (as long as you do it right) and good profit.

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Farming Business

How to Start Mushroom Farming In 2022

Do you know that commercial Mushroom farming is a lucrative business with little recognition in Nigeria? Even so, mushroom farming involves the breeding of edible mushrooms for sale.

Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies of a kind of fungi. They grow on their source of food, which is usually a rotting wood, and on the soil.

Mushrooms occur in various breeds with some containing toxins that are harmful to the body while some contain nutrients which benefits the body. Apart from the many nutrients mushrooms are a source to, they have a delightful taste.

The demand for mushrooms is high while its supply is low in Nigeria. Therefore, the supply is supported by exporting mushrooms from other countries. That’s reason beginner mushroom farmers can tap in now and start making profit.

Is Mushroom Farming Profitable?

Mushroom farming in Nigeria is on low availability whereas its demand is high. With this, starting your mushroom farm would bring you to a market where the product is in high need but there are few suppliers. Therefore, you don’t have to worry about not finding customers.

Also, mushroom farming takes some effort (what business doesn’t?) but the profit is worth more than the effort. This business can make you a millionaire as long as learn the know-how and do it.

How Much to Make From Mushroom Farming

Mushroom farmers make millions! The amount you profit at the end of one season is, of course, as a result of the amount you invest in mushroom seeds.

For instance, you made 25 bags of oysters which weigh about 500 kilos. 1 kilo of oysters is N2000, 500 kilos of oyster gives you 2000 × 500 = 1,000,000 naira.

Mushroom Farming At Home

You want to start mushroom farming at home. Its not the kind of business that selects location. You can create the kind of habitat suitable for growing mushrooms at home.  Here’s what you need to do.

Get The Know-How:

To start anything, you need to know how to do it or you’ll make the slightest mistake you could have avoided.

This article already gives you a basic knowledge of mushroom farming. Read more about it and also learn from mushroom farmers.

Acquire a Space:

Get a space for your farm. This space should be large enough to accommodate your mushrooms if using the wood log medium. For the sawdust medium, you can use a darkened room with enough ventilation in your house (to save some money) or build a farmhouse.

Substrate or Medium:

Get the medium or substrate needed to grow the mushrooms. Examples of this substrate are sawdust and bran. The substrate must be disinfected to remove microorganisms which may affect the growth of the mushrooms.

Container and in-Betweens:

The container can be a plastic bag or something else that has enough space to allow the mushroom spawns (seeds) to grow. Further more, in-betweens are equipment for sanitation which includes gloves and disinfectants and sprayers to mist the mushrooms. Because good sanitation is a very important factor in a mushroom farm which can either make or break it.

Getting The Seeds for Mushroom Farming

The seeds called spawns must be of good quality. All in all, aim for quality, not inexpensiveness. And make sure to get your seeds from a reliable source.

Mushroom Spawn Suppliers:

  • Prokee Import And Export Merchants.
  • KC Farm
  • Anighoro farms (based in Lagos, Ogun & and Edo state)
  • JEMAC Alternatives Nig Ltd
  • Jomolu Farms
  • David Nigeria Limited
  • TJY Nigeria
  • Mcprint Systems Limited
  • LTC Mushroom
  • Sweet Fungus Limited
  • ACEPRD Mushroom Farm (University Of Jos)
  • Afudem Farm
  • Santa Nigeria Limited
  • Paramount Integrated Ltd
  • Sunnykem Multibiz Company
  • Ozias Nigeria Limited
  • Lexon International Enterprise

You can also get mushroom seeds from The Mushroom Association in Nigeria.

Mushroom Farming Setup Cost & Requirements

The cost to start initially ranges from N100,000-N500,000. Startup would be on the less side if some of the essentials are present, and if you are doing it at home without land cost.

Also, cost for subsequent breeding seasons would  be less since the necessary facilities are already available.

Startup cost is required to cover the acquisition of land, the building of a farmhouse (if you don’t have one already), and all the materials needed for the smooth run of the farm.

Best Ways to Make a Mushroom Farm

Moreover, to build a mushroom farm, you need a medium– a substrate where the mushroom seed is planted which can allow it to grow. This medium can either be a log of wood or sawdust.

Sawdust Medium

Sawdust is cheap to get. A bag can be sold for N50 or less if you’re buying many in bulk. And you can get it from any wood market across Nigeria.

For the sawdust medium:

  • Get bags of sawdust and sterilize the sawdust to remove microorganisms that would harm the mushrooms.
  • Place the sawdust in a plastic bag or any other container that can accommodate the growth of the mushrooms.
  • Combine the seeds of the mushroom (spawns) with the sawdust in the container.
  • The mushroom spawns need an initial heat before they grow. So, place the container with the mixture of sawdust and spawns under direct sunlight to heat up for some time.
  • After heating, place the container in a dark room or space. This is where the growing process occurs. The room should have good ventilation and be at normal room temperature.
  • Pour some soil over the mixture and spray it with water regularly to keep it moistened for about 4 weeks as the spawns grow into mushrooms.

Wood Log Medium

Furthermore, to use this medium, you would need logs of wood cut into several pieces. These pieces of wood must be decontaminated and must be a good breeding area for the mushrooms.

To plant the mushroom spawns:

  • Make holes into the pieces of wood and place the spawns in these holes.
  • Keep the logs under a shade to protect the spawns from direct sunlight.
  • Spray the spawns regularly as they grow into mushrooms.

4 Categories of Mushrooms

The four main categories of mushrooms are:

  1. Edible mushrooms
  2. Medicinal mushrooms
  3. Poisonous mushrooms
  4. Miscellaneous Group

As can be expected, edible mushrooms are mushroom you can eat as food. The medicinal mushrooms are used in taking care of certain ailments and can be used by pharmaceutical companies in the production of drugs. A poisonous mushroom is deadly. They are mushrooms that are both medicinal as well as edible. While miscellaneous group are those which contains mushrooms whose values are not yet established.

Also, these edible mushrooms are packed with protein, vitamins and also contain moderate amount of vitamin. But they are very low in carbohydrate. They are better referred to as vegetables, and they are absorbable by the body without producing waste.

There are common edible mushroom species in Nigeria. The Pleurotus tuber-regium or tuberous mushroom for example is popular in the south eastern Nigeria.

Popular Mushroom Species

Some of the edible mushroom species to farm in Nigeria include:

  • Shiitake (Letinula Edodes): This species of mushroom is said to reduce tumors. It’s widely grown in Asian countries, especially Japan.
  • Oysters (Pleurotus Ostreatus): This species have antibacterial and antioxidant abilities. It may also fight excess cholesterol in one’s body.
  • Morels (Morchella Esculenta): Morels also have antioxidant abilities like Oysters and are rich in vitamin C.
  • Chanterelles (Cantharellus Cibarius): This species, like Shiitake, is widely grown in Asia along with Europe’s northern regions and North America. They are rich in vitamins C and D.

Challenges of Mushroom Farming

Moreover, the major challenge facing mushroom businesses in Nigeria is the inadequate information about the health benefits of mushrooms and the support they can add to the economy.

Mushroom farming is an untapped resource that can generate employment and income to Nigerians if only more people know about it.

5 Stages of Mushroom Cultivation

While mushroom farming may follow these five stages, not each step requires careful handling for best results. Because all mushrooms may not follow all the five steps mentioned above. It depends on each species. And some species may require specific conditions for their growth and development.


Interestingly, to start mushroom farming, you need to first prepare the bed using different substrates. There are different types of substrates suitable for mushroom farming in Nigeria. Below are common ones:

  • Banana leaves
  • Banana stems
  • Oil palm fruit fiber
  • Oil palm bunch
  • Banana peels
  • Corn husk


Spawning simple means mushroom seed planting. This process is to create a vegetative state for the mushrooms. When they are spawned, after a while, the mycelium will grow and run through the system in few days – which is noticed by the white color. You don’t leave it like this, because you don’t want to get the fruiting bodies.

That leads us to the next stage, which is known as casing.


Here the key ingredient is calcium carbonate soil – which is required to cover the mushroom white vegetative state. This process is to convert the mushroom from a vegetative to productive phase.

Casing starves the mushroom of nutrients, which in return inspires the mushrooms to fight for survival, by producing spores, leading to forming fruiting bodies that the farmer can harvest.

Harvesting or Picking

This is the most important stage of cultivation for mushroom farming. The initial first day harvest is followed by another harvest two or three days after the first harvest. You repeat harvest again after two or three days up to fourth or fifth time. When you notice the yield is decreasing, you can stop harvesting to give it more time to grow again.

Also, consider the specie of mushroom when harvesting. Some species may not support frequent harvest due to their yield level.


As you can see, your package must follow international standard, especially if you are farming mushrooms for export. Note that the best packaging always win. Canned mushroom is good for export market. Drying your mushroom is another process in packaging and it helps in storing it for long period.

Mushroom Markets In Nigeria

Mushroom marketing opportunities includes selling to end users who may have capacity to consume more mushrooms. You should consider the following market opportunities:

  • Restaurants
  • Hotels
  • Super markets
  • Households
  • Export markets

While it may be easier to target restaurants, hotels and super markets in Nigeria for your mushroom farming produce, selling directly to households may require online presence. Targeting export market may also be a huge selling option if your produce very large quantity or you are creating a large mushroom farm.

Mushroom Export Opportunities

In addition, mushroom export can take different forms. It can be exported fresh, dried or canned. However, as a beginner mushroom farmer, it’s recommended you don’t go this alone. Starting mushroom farming maybe simply and easily explained in a post like this, but exporting mushrooms may not be that simple.

There are laws, procedures and export requirements you may need to be abreast of. Ignorance may cost you more than you can afford to pay. And since policies can change and different export countries may have different rules, I advise that you join the Nigerian Mushroom association.

Besides, your membership will keep you abreast of how other members are doing their export and you will also get members free help from the association in exporting your mushroom.


in summary, mushroom farming is interesting and it’s valuable. But not many people are involved. It’s easy to run and yields magnanimously in a few months. In short, this business is one you should consider. Just learn the process and follow them and you’d have for yourself a booming business. Mushrooms are mostly consumed as livestock like sheep, but it’s a vegetable.

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Farming Business

How to Start Pig Farming In Nigeria (2023)

Pig farming is a kind of livestock farming which involves the rearing of pigs. Pigs, if nurtured and reared well, mature for market quicker than most livestock. Their breeding rate (about 10 healthy piglets) also contributes to providing more profit to their farmer.

Pig farming isn’t gross as it’s stereotyped to be. In fact, an emphasis is placed on cleanliness and biosecurity like other livestock farms. Maybe even more than other farms.

Pig farming as you already guessed is the rearing of pigs for commercial purposes.

How Profitable Is Pig Farming?

Pig farming is highly profitable. It however doesn’t have the recognition it deserves in Nigeria. Pig meat (pork) is a good source of animal protein. The nutritional benefits pork is capable of giving trumps over religious biases some people have about it.

How Much to Make From Pig Farming

A mature pig can be sold for N35,000-N40,000. The sale of 50 mature pigs for N35,000 would give you 50 × 35,000= N1,750,000. If you raise 200 mature pigs in a year, your return would be 200 × 35,000= 7 million naira.

However, the market-quality of the pigs depends on the quality of the pig’s breed and its overall health.

The Demand For Pig Meat

The demand for pig meat (pork) is high in Nigeria but there are few localized sources. About 80% of the pork consumed in Nigeria is imported.

Pork is a major source of animal protein and though there are religious discriminations against pork, the nutritional benefits can not be ignored.



Tips To Start Pig Farming

Starting your pig farm can seem a little daunting and confusing at first ’cause where do you start from

Here are some tips you should know before launching your pig farm:

Startup Capital:

The startup capital is an important component that determines the others. It must be enough to cover vaccination, housing and feed for the pigs.

Free-Range or Intensive:

Pigs can either be reared in a free-range system or an intensive system.

In the free-range system, the pigs are allowed to roam about and graze on a fenced piece of land. In this system, the animals have enough space to themselves and there is less possibility of the spread of diseases.

Shade must be provided in the free-range system to prevent the pigs from getting sunburns and to provide a cool atmosphere for the pigs.

In an intensive system, the pigs are kept in a secured building and their movements are usually limited to the house. The animals might be allowed to roam on fenced grounds and are later returned to the building.

There must be enough space to accommodate the animals in the building to prevent overcrowding.

What You Need For Pig Farming


The house the pigs are kept in must allow enough air in and be cool even in hot periods. This is because pigs are vulnerable to stress from heat. The building should also be spacious enough for the number of pigs accommodated in it.

Getting the pigs:

When getting the weaners (little pigs), ensure that they are of good genetics and in good health. Although we sometimes go for the cheaper alternative, don’t do that while purchasing the new pigs. Purchase the ones of good quality.

Availability of water:

The availability of water is a very important factor that determines the proper growth and function of pigs. On average, a young pig needs about 10 liters of water in a day while an adult pig needs 25-50 liters in a day.

That is a lot of water!

Apart from the nutritional benefits of water, pigs also use water to regulate their body temperature. This is also a reason why they bathe in mud. There must be a constant supply of water available and a backup reserved water in case the supply of water is cut short.

Quality of feed:

What kind of feed would you be providing your pigs? The feed must be a balanced diet, providing your swine all the needed nutrition.


When your pigs are getting mature for the market, find a good market for them and sell at profitable rates.

Start small:

It is advisable to start small when you’re just beginning. This would enable you to test your knowledge and capability. And it would also shorten the number of possible casualties that may occur due to your experience level. As soon as you get the hang of it, increase the number of weaners the next time.

Pig Farming Cost And Requirements

The cost of starting up a pig farm must be enough to cover the land, housing, the pigs, vaccines, feed and feeding equipment.

Pig Farm Construction

The construction of a pig farm solely depends on whether it’s a free-range or an intensive housing system.

For an intensive housing system, a building with enough ventilation and light would be erected. This building must be able to keep them warm during the cold season and keep them cool during hot seasons.

For a free-range system, the field provided for the pigs to graze and roam on must be fenced to prevent them from wandering till they’re lost. Also, a house must be built to gather the pigs together when it’s dark to protect them from predators and cold.

Light, water and shade must be made available to the pigs in either kind of housing system. Good quality feed and water must also be provided.

The Best Pig Species

The best species of pigs in Nigeria are:

  • Local breeds: They came in different colours: white, black, brown.
  • Foreign breeds include:
  • Duroc: They are red in colour and are muscular. Also, their growth rate is faster than the other breeds.
  • Hampshire: They are black in colour with a white band around their body. They are also muscular.
  • Landrace: The pigs are white in colour and they have long bodies.
  • Yorkshire: This breed is white in colour and also has long bodies.

Challenges of Pig farming Business

Disease and infection:

This is a major problem many livestock farmers face. The spread of disease can be prevented by not overcrowding, by vaccinating the pigs and by examining them regularly for signs of an infection.

Acquisition of land:

Finding land that not only accommodates the pigs well but one that also accommodates their waste products might be hard to find. Also, when choosing a land, consider it’s closeness to markets, access to water and convenient roads.

Cost of feed:

Pigs feed on several ranges of food: foods humans eat, vegetables, leftovers from restaurants, local markets and many other scraps. And the cost little or nothing.

Startup Capital:

Fresh and young entrepreneurs face the problem of low or no startup capital. They may have the idea and knowledge to start a pig farm but the capital is absent.

This challenge can be tackled by saving, investing, receiving a loan, lending from friends and family, selling stuff you don’t need, and many more.


Pig farming is an interesting kind of livestock farming. It is an overlooked business, therefore, there are only a few farms in Nigeria. Even with this, it is consumed significantly in the country.

Pig farming requires time, money and care like other kinds of livestock farming. Like most livestock farms (if not all), pig farming is highly profitable. Gather the necessary knowledge you need to build a successful pig farming business and start building your farm.

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