Category : Farming Business

Farming Business

How to Start Your Own Cassava Production

Cassava Production

Cassava production is easy. You cannot talk about Cassava production without involving the farming aspect. It only involves you planting stems in the ground that would grow well even without making ridges.

My mom, one day, got several cassava stems and planted them in the garden space we had and some months later, we harvested more than I imagined we would.

Do you know cassava would thrive anywhere in Nigeria as long as there is sunlight and adequate rain. That’s why Nigeria remains a major producer of cassava in Africa.

But the bigger business in Cassava farming in the production. It’s as far as your imagine can go. However, I’m only going to start you off here with what’s basic now.

✅ Understanding Cassava Production

Cassava is one of the topmost consumed foods by Nigerians. Cassava production businesses not only makes food produce available but also products like animal feed, glucose, alcohol and fertilizer.

Moreover, cassava can be made into starch which can be used to make textiles and paper. It can replace wheat flour for bread and cakes, ethanol for biofuel, modified to fructose to sweeten drinks, and made into local foods: fufu, akpu, garri. The list is unimaginable.

Yet, the cassava production business is something that can be done by anyone. Although, it can be part of cassava farming business but it’s more of a production part of cassava business.

✅ Is cassava farming and production profitable in Nigeria?

Cassava farming is profitable in Nigeria. Its compatibility with the soil and its demand in Nigeria has resulted in it being available in large amounts. Also, Nigeria is among the countries that produce the most cassava. Our soil agrees with it and we consume it as a staple food.

The high demand for cassava makes it a good commodity to sell. You can also export your products to other countries.

You can venture into producing these cassava into different raw materials and finished products

✅ Some Cassava Products

  • The leaves are vegetable chock full of nutrients like protein.
  • The roots, while still unpeeled, can be dried to make animal feed.
  • The stems can also be sold and the roots converted to various end products.

✅ How Much Cassava Farms Make

A tons of cassava can be sold for N25,000 – N35,000. It sometimes goes up to N50,000 at the beginning of the year. This rate is high due to the cost of farming and would be lesser if cassava processing machines are utilized more by farmers. The price is estimate and may change with time due to different factors.

✅ Tips to Setup Cassava Production

If you are thinking how can you start a cassava production business in Nigeria, here’s your guide. But the first step could be to choose with aspect of the Cassava value chain you would like to start from. While the first chain is the Cassava farm. Its highly advisable to start from the beginning of the chain.

Buying cassava from farmers for your production maybe wise if you lack the land needed for farming. But on a long run, farming the cassava yourself makes more sense profit wise.



✅ Get the Capital

Do a feasibility study to assess the merits and demerits of the business. Afterwards, formulate a feasibility plan for your business and get the capital needed.

The plan has to come first because it involves putting down your ideas about how you want your business to go, its size, how you plan to get the capital, the equipment you need and all information necessary about your business.

✅ Siting of Farm

Cassava thrives in loamy soil and much less in sandy or clay soils. It can survive in a drought but requires sufficient rainfall to grow as it should.

The farmland should be situated close to the market. Not just any market but one where cassava is sold and in demand. If to be processed, it should near the plant

To increase the land’s productivity, some agricultural procedures can be done to prepare the land before the planting of the cassava stems.

  • Manure: waste from animals and dead crops are a good source of manure. This would add nutrients to the soil, improving its productivity.
  • Mulching: mulching involves covering the top of ridges with dead vegetation. These are called mulch. Examples of mulch are legumes’ foliage, husks of rice.
  • Inter-cropping: intercropping with crops like legumes add to or increase the cultivation of the crops. Legumes add nitrogen to the soil, enriching it. Other intercrops that can be used are maize and rice.
  • Choose the best cassava species: choose the best of the cassava species you can find for maximum production and harvest. The kind of cassava it is would affect its growth which is why getting the best is expedient. Aside from good growth, get one that has disease resistance, matures fast, is edible and can stay in the ground as it matures without getting spoiled.

How many acres do you need for a start? One acre, one hectare, get a land your budget can sufficiently carry. You don’t even need to buy. It can be leased.

✅ Planting

You need to till the land first before planting anything. The stems should be planted afterwards with two-thirds of them in the ground.

Plant early in the planting season so that the cassava crops get as much water as they can from the rain.

Over 14 – 19 tons of cassava can be harvested in a hectare of land.
To conserve the land’s nutrients so that the cassava crops can get the most of them, weeding is mandatory.

✅ Harvest

As the crops mature, they can be harvested.
This is the first stage in the processing of cassava flour. Harvest can be done with manual labour or by harvesters.
Harvest takes place about 7 – 10 months after planting the cassava.

The top part of the cassava stem with leaves is cut leaving a shorter lower part in the ground. The lower part of the stem is then pulled out to bring the cassava roots or crops to the top of the soil and then the roots are separated from the stem.

The cassava stems are harvested too and kept in a shelter to protect them from rain and prevent rot. They can be sold or kept for the next planting season.

✅ Processing the Produce

The process of converting cassava into garri for example has 4 processes aside from harvesting: peeling, grating, sieving, frying. In the peeling process, the skin of the cassava tubers is peeled with knives manually or with the use of peeling machines.

The grating process involves the grating, shredding of the tubers into much smaller pieces. It can also be done manually or with a grating machine. And the grated cassava is sieved to extract the cassava flour needed to make garri in the sieving process. A sieving machine or mesh can be used.

After the cassava flour has been collected, it is fried to dehydrate it. The frying machine is faster especially if the product is a lot and for commercial purposes.

Afterwards, cassava flour is packaged to be marketed and consumed.

✅ Marketing

The marketing of your cassava produce would be straightforward if your farm is situated in a location where cassava is in demand. You can decide to sell it as raw produce to processing industries or in the processed form to the market.

To reach other locations apart from yours, you will need to spread the word about your market online, on social media, flyers with your brand defined on them. You should also have a website with your brand’s name and logo.

✅ Startup Cost And Requirements

The cost of starting cassava farming in Nigeria can be about N100,000. It includes the necessary expenses: renting, leasing or buying land, land preparation, fertilizer, cassava stems, herbicides and weeding.

The startup cost can reduce with the size you choose to start with and the availability of necessary items.

You must have a budget included in your business plan which would comprise of all that you would be getting so that you would spend according to your budget and not overshoot or leave something out.

✅ Challenges of Cassava Production Business

The following are the challenges of cassava production business in Nigeria:

  • Diseases include root rots, cassava mosaic disease, cassava anthracnose disease, cassava bud necrosis, cassava bacterial blight and mealybugs.
  • Pests
  • Poor quality of soil
  • Market accessibility: the bulk of cassava may cause transportation to be more strenuous especially in areas with bad roads and a poor transport system. A bicycle for example would present the individual conveying them with a lot of stress.
  • Overuse of fertilizers
  • Livestock damage

Preventive measures can reduce the chances of these challenges. They include:

  • Use of good cuttings for planting. Do not plant cuttings with obvious signs of disease.
  • Crops vulnerable to nematodes must not be used as intercrops.
  • Do not delay harvesting.
  • Space the crops properly.
  • Clean equipment for planting before use.
  • Space the crops properly. They should be as separate from each other as they need to be.
  • Waterlogged land that is closer to water or land that was previously infested is not a good land choice.

✅ Conclusion

Finally, do you have questions unanswered by this article? You can drop me a enquiries in the comment box below. However, consider this article a beginner guide to identifying the key areas of starting your own cassava production business.

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Farming Business

Easy Steps to Start Honey Bee Farming In 2023

Honey Bee Farming

I read this honey bee farming story with amusement – as told by an unanimous story teller.

When I was much younger, my father, during one of his adventures in an old, dusty store in our apartment, got stung by a honey bee. And his eye was swollen. My junior brother, almost exploding with the news screamed to our neighbor downstairs, “my daddy is blind”. He was about four years old at the time.

Thankfully, my father did not go blind.

The business of rearing honey bees, honey bee farming, involves the keeping of bees, breeding them, collecting the honey produced and marketing them.

Honey bee farming business is known as apiculture. Asides from honey, honey bees are also kept for other products which include beeswax, venom, royal jelly, pollen and propolis.

First of all, the know-how of the business is very important. Do you have an idea of what a honey bee farm is about? How do you start one?



Why Start Honey Bee Farming?

Beekeeping, among many other agricultural businesses, is a gold well and requires more involvement.

3 reasons why you should start a honey bee farm:

Highly Profitable

In 2018, it was recorded that Nigeria spends about two billion dollars to import honey into the country. It has also been discovered that Nigeria produces about 10% of honey that its citizens consume!

This should answer your question of whether or not bee farming is profitable. There’s around 90% local market supply gap. Your honey bee farm has a large room for growth.

A majority of the honey consumed in Nigeria is imported. And many of them are not actual honey but sugar syrups. Think about that.

Agents of Pollination

If you already have a farm, it’s an added advantage because bees are pollination agents. They would cause a significant increase in your produce and income at the end of the day.

The business flows with the seasons. You need to know the times and seasons if you’ll engage in beekeeping.

Honey bees are more active during flowering seasons before fruits start to form. They are at their peak and this way, they can get enough pollen and nectar and hence produce a maximum amount of honey.

They can however be fed in seasons where food is not abundant.


A beehive can produce up to twelve liters of honey in the first year of acquiring it. Consequently, you can get about ten liters of honey after 6-8 months.

A liter of honey can sell for about N1500 or more. Calculate N1500×10× the number of beehives you have and that is your profit from bee farming every 6-8 months.

Imagine you have 100 beehives that’s N1,500 multiplied by 10, which is N15,000. Then multiply N15,000 by 100, and that’s N1,500,000 every 6 to 8 months.

How Much Required to Start Honey Bee Farm

If you are wanting to ask this question: How much does it cost to start a bee farm in Nigeria? I have the answer covered for you in this post as well.

Bee farming can be started with as low as N50,000 and as much as can be. How high the starting cost goes solely depends on how big you want to start.

New tools are better for new bee farmers or beekeepers because they are new. Unlike most second-hand equipment, they have everything intact. You might not notice something missing if you’re not familiar with the equipment so it’s much better.

The starting cost can also be reduced by using locally made equipment, as long as they are of good quality.

A farm site for you bees does not have to be your land, acquired and paid for, especially you don’t have so much. It can be leased or rented from a friend, family member or anyone willing to lease their land.

Or you can partner with someone who has a farm. For safety sake, let this agreement be bound with a legal document or with trusted witnesses at least.

The landowner benefits from the bees’ pollination and you benefit from the space or land and the availability of flowers and food.

Pick Your Bee Niche

You can keep honey bees for several reasons. Many apiculturists keep honey bees just for their honey but there are more products honey bees are capable of producing.

Your bee niche may be to produce beeswax along with honey. Or to harvest royal jelly and honey. You can also decide to rear honey bees for the function of pollinating crops.

Choose the products you want to base your beekeeping business on and build up from there.

How do honey bees produce honey?
Did you know that honey is food for honey bees?

Also, did you know that honey bees have a separate stomach called the honey stomach where they temporarily store nectar?

Honey bees suck out nectar from flowers and store it in their honey stomach. When their stomachs are filled, they return to the beehive where they convert the nectar to honey.

Did you suck out the juice from small red flowers like I did when I was younger? That sweet juice that you tasted is nectar.

The Best Location for Bee Farming

The beehive should allow for sunlight. There should also be a shade to reduce the severity of the sun and to keep the beehive cool.

The beehive should be located amidst trees or some kind of shade to protect the bees from intense winds and sunlight, the forces of nature.

For the bees to find food, the compound with their hive needs to have plants. It doesn’t have to be a flower bed or flowers of fruits alone. Weeds, trees, and other plants are also sources of food since they produce pollen.

Bees must be able to find abundant water and food (pollen and nectar) in the area where the hive is so that they do not have to travel long distances in search of food.

The area should be dry, not moist. It should not be noisy or crowded. Avoid using chemicals like weedicide or insecticide around the area where the beehive is situated.

The opening or door of the beehive should not be in the direction where people would pass. This would prevent a collision between bees and humans and therefore prevent bee stings.

Marketing Plan For Honey Bee Farming Business

A business plan is important to communicate what your business is about and how you want to run it. Contact us to get one at affordable price. Or get the Honey Bee Farming Guide 101 to hive you all the necessary information.

If you want to apply for a loan, you need to have a business plan to show your lender how you plan on using their money, how long it would take and how the profits would stream in.

Your Business plan should include the source of income for your business.

• Will you be getting a loan?
• For consequent costs, how would you find them?
• What would happen if you run at a loss?

Your plan should have this information.

Also, in your plan, you need to input your target market. Who would you supply with your products? How do you reach them and how do you convince them to buy from you? You should identify both local and international markets for your honey.

You should also assess your business for its strengths, weaknesses, available opportunities, and possible threats.
It’s referred to as a SWOT Analysis.


Honey bee farming business is one with great demand and profits. The question of whether or not people would buy is irrelevant because there is a good amount of demand already available on ground and a much less supply in Nigeria.

Do you now have an idea of what starting a honey bee farm business looks like? Do you have unanswered questions? Let me know in the comments.

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Farming Business

Grasscutter Farming Guide For Nigeria (2023)

Best Guide on Grasscutter Farming

Do you know that grasscutter farming is one of the livestock businesses in Nigeria that require low cost but has big returns on your investment?

Grasscutter meat has risen among other sources of meat and now ranks among the most anted source of meat in Nigeria. This is understandable due to its many benefits and taste. However, there is a larger demand than supply.

Grasscutter farming is the business of breeding grasscutters for their meat and by-products (for example, their faeces for fertilisers).

Grasscutters are also referred to as cane rats. This is because sugarcane is one of their beloved foods. If you are going to be very successful as a grasscutter farmer, farm sugarcane too.

Interestingly, grasscutters are rodents. They are much larger than common rats and live in bushes. Rats however are found in houses and their surroundings.

Grasscutter meat, among other grasscutter products, is in high demand. It contains a low amount of cholesterol and a high amount of essential nutrients. They are easy to breed. They mature early at about 5-6 months. Their gestation period is about 22 weeks and one female can produce roughly 12 offspring’s in a year.

Why Start a Grasscutter Farm?

See some of the reasons to start your own grasscutter farming right at your back yard, without investing in farm lands and costly housing kits.

Health Benefits

Grasscutter meat is found among the class of meat referred to as white meat. It has much-reduced fat and cholesterol levels. It is high in protein. Also, grasscutter meat reduces the risks of hypertension by preventing some of the factors which cause it like high cholesterol and obesity.

Another Stream of Income

Grasscutter farming is an agricultural business that is not only profitable but also brings you passive income. You don’t have to do so much work since they do not require much attention.

Ease in Farming Grasscutters

That grasscutters do not need much attention does not mean that you can or should neglect them. Grasscutters need food and water daily and regular checkups to examine them for signs of sickness and keep them healthy.

They can be left alone by themselves after being provided for so that you can attend your other job if you are not doing it full time.



Low Starting Cost and Risks

You don’t need so much money to start a grasscutter business. It only needs to cover the necessities and then you are good to go. You can even start it at your back yard. Cost of building shelter or cage for grasscutters is minimal. You can construct it yourself if you are technically inclined.

They Are Fruitful and Multiply Early

Grasscutters become mature as they attain 5-6 months of age. Some even mature much early than 5 months and are ripe for breeding. This depends majorly on their breed and how well they are cared for.

It takes approximately 22 weeks for female grasscutters to carry their younglings. This means they can produce grasscutter babies twice in one year. Your breeding target should be calculated by the number of breeders you farm.

Each birth can yield about 5-7 grasscutters which means a single female grasscutter can birth 10-14 grasscutters in one year.

Increased and Increasing Demand

Due to the benefits of grasscutter meat and its recommendations by people in the health sector, the demand for grasscutter meat has risen.

This demand would continue to increase as more people find out about its benefits. You can equally farm grasscutters for your personal needs.

How Much You Require to Start

This depends on the size you’re starting with. Factors that determine the startup cost:

  • Getting a mature doe(female) and a buck(male). A mature doe costs about N14,000 and a matured buck is about N12,000.
  • The housing – should be such that gives the room enough to move around and nit confide them to static position.
  • Feeding, cleaning and other necessary equipment
  • Feed
  • Checkups by a veterinary doctor

A small scale farm would cost about N50,000-N80,000 to setup. It can cost less if you have the housing or the necessary equipment ready.

Pick Your Grasscutter Farming Method

Commercial grasscutter farming can be performed in two ways:

  1. Deep litter method
  2. Cage method

Deep Litter Method

This involves putting some grasscutters in a house, in a single space.

This can be done efficiently well with a minimal number of grasscutters. The grasscutter house should be spacious to allow the grasscutters to move around freely and have space to themselves.

Cage Method

This method involves keeping grasscutters in cages or hutches. This method keeps a reduced number of grasscutters in each cage. A colony (4 females and 1 male) can occupy a cage or the grasscutters can be separated so that individual grasscutters occupy a cage.

How to Build a Grasscutter House

Housing in grasscutter farming is very important.
It must allow ventilation, light and have enough space for the animals.

The grasscutter cage should also have structures like light bulbs and waterproof covers that can protect the animals from rain and cold.

Building materials should be made of quality materials. Bamboo and wood can be chewed on, so they’re not efficient choice materials.

A grasscutter house is usually and popularly built with metal.

Grasscutters are clean animals. The grasscutter house should be built so that there is a separate space for feeding and a separate one for resting.

To allow for breeding, grasscutters should be kept in a colony. A grasscutter colony has 4 females and 1 male. This method is good since the presence of a male stimulates ovulation in females and the presence of more than one male with a female would provoke fights.

In a situation where a huge grasscutter needs to be moved around, a squeeze cage should be available. It should be about the size of the grasscutter and should not allow much movement.

A squeeze cage facilitates the easy handling of grasscutters of various sizes. The size of the cage should be tailored to fit the size of the grasscutter.

Also, trays for feeding and drinking should be made heavy so that the grasscutters cannot displace them.

The Best Grasscutter Foods

Grasscutters eat sugarcane, legumes, guinea grass, elephant grass, peels of tuber crops (e.g. cassava) and outer coverings of fruits like pineapple and mango.

They can also be given concentrate to supply them with more nutrients and balance their diet. Some concentrates are made of only one ingredient. This would not give the animals all the nutrients they need so it should be rotated with other feeds.

Other concentrates are made from multiple ingredients and can be fed to the grasscutters constantly. The feed should be placed in the feeding container and not the floor to prevent the grasscutters from stepping on the food and soiling it with their fasces.

You can feed your grasscutters two or three times daily. Feeding the grasscutters should be consistent every day. If you would feed them in the afternoons by 2 pm, keep up with that.

A baby grasscutter depends on the mother for milk. And when it is about 6 weeks old, it is ready to be weaned.

What’s The Best Time to Start Breeding?

You can start anytime. As long as you have the money to start and the necessities are available; food and housing, and others. Another best time is tomorrow. You can start with one male and one female.

Managing Diseases And Environment Conditions

Grasscutters are prone to certain diseases which are described below. These diseases can be prevented by proper care for the grasscutters and by regularly checking them up.

Their surroundings should be kept clean and dry. Leftover food and food that is spilt out of the feeding container should be removed before a new one is placed.

Ecto and Endoparasites

Ticks and fleas are ectoparasites commonly found on grasscutters. Endoparasites like worms also trouble grasscutters. These worms are attracted to wet areas. Constant deworming of the grasscutters would keep these worms in check.


Is a common disease that attacks grasscutters. It is caused by Diplococus Pneumonate which is a bacteria. This bacteria is abundant in cold seasons. Grasscutters should therefore be kept as warm as possible during cold seasons.


Coccidiosis is caused by a protozoan. It causes tiredness, appetite loss and diarrhoea in grasscutters.


Is caused by Staphylococcus Aureus which is a bacteria. It causes discharges in the vagina and nose of the grasscutters.


Grasscutter business is another lucrative business that you can own and make yours. Are you going to start your grasscutter business, if yes, do contact us for consultation and guidance. If you have more questions, let me know in the comment.

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Farming Business

How to Start Rabbit Farming Profitably In 2023

Rabbit farming

Rabbit farming business is a business that has a high booming capacity. Rabbit farming, also called cuniculture, refers to the keeping of rabbits for their meat, fur and byproducts.

A business of rearing rabbits, furry animals such as the one which led Alice down the rabbit hole to Wonderland.

Rabbit farming is the commercial rearing of rabbits, primarily for sales purposes. You can rear a single breed or diverse kinds of breeds.

Rabbit meat is the major reason why Nigerian rabbit farmers breed them. Little attention is placed on their fur. The meat is among the meats classified as white meat. As the importance of rabbit farming in Nigeria continues to spread to more people, its high demand would continue to increase.

So, is rabbit farming a profitable business in Nigeria? Yes. Rabbits are not expensive to breed, unlike some other livestock animals. You don’t spend much on them and you get ample profit.

Why Start a Rabbit Farming Business?

Here are my 6 reasons why you should start a rabbit farm business:

  • They can care for themselves

Of course, you need to provide food for them since they are caged and cannot get food themselves. But rabbits can be left alone after they have been provided for. This characteristic of rabbits allows you to attend to your other job if you are a part-time rabbit keeper.

  • For Their By-products

Did you know that rabbit urine is used as a pesticide and a fertilizer? Rabbit’s urine contains nitrogen and therefore enriches the soil and crops and due to its pungent smell, it repels insect pests.

  • Doesn’t require a large amount as a start-up

Rabbit farming, like grasscutter farming, is referred to as called micro livestock farming and do not need much startup cost.

  • High Reproduction rate

Rabbits have a gestation of about 31 days after which a female rabbit produces two to twelve younglings. Due to its short gestation period, a female rabbit can produce offspring up to seven times in one year!

  • Benefits to health

As I mentioned earlier, rabbits are a source of white meat which has been known for its health benefits.

It is said to have low-calorie levels, preventing weight gain and hypertension.

  • Early maturation

Rabbits enter the maturity stage at about 5-6 months old. Some farmers however suggest that male rabbits are left to enter their first year before they are bred.

This is said to allow for the production of quality offspring.



How much to Earn from Rabbit Farming?

The amount you earn from each rabbit largely depends on their age and breed. You can sell a rabbit at the rate of N1500 to about N9000.

How Much You Require to Start

The amount of money you need to start your rabbit farming business depends on 3 major factors:

● The rabbit’s breed
● The number of rabbits you are starting with
● Getting a rabbit house

The cost ranges from N45,000-N100,000 with N100,000 being the highest amount you would have to spend. It can cost more if you want to start on a large scale.

Pick Your Rabbit Farming Method

Rabbits can be reared in a cage method or deep litter method.

Deep Litter Method

● This method is efficient if you will be raising a few rabbits.
● You can keep up to 30 rabbits in one house in the deep litter method. Males should be kept apart from the females till it is time to breed.
● The floor of the house should be made of concrete and should be covered with dry wood shavings or straw.
● There is a higher risk in this method than in the cage method. Make sure to start with a little number, gain experience and see how it goes and then increase their number.

Cage Method

● The animals are reared in a cage in this method. This method of rabbit farming is more efficient for a commercial business.
● You can raise as many rabbits as you want with this method with the animals spaced out in different cages.
● This method allows the rabbits enough space and food in their cage.
● The females and males also need to be separated from each other until it is time for breeding.

Rabbit Farming Business Plan in Nigeria

A business plan is important in planning your business. If you want to get a loan to start your business, you will have to show the lender something, proof that you know what you are doing and that profit would come from the business so that you can pay them back.

The business plan should describe your business, how it would be funded, expected profit, how the marketing part would go, and all that your business needs and would be about.

There are samples of business plans to guide you in making yours.

How To Build Rabbits’ House

A rabbit house (hutch or cage) should have good ventilation, be protected by a shade and be out of the way of people passing by or noise.

The rabbit house needs a windbreaker, like a tree so that when it gets windy they would be protected from massive amounts of wind. They also need protection from rain during rainy seasons.

You should consider the following when buying or building a rabbit house:

● The size

How many rabbits do you want to start with? This would determine the size of the cage that you get.

● The type

Is the rabbit house outdoor or indoor? This would determine the material that is used to make the cage. If the cage is placed outdoors, a wooden cage would not be efficient. It would get weaker as the rain beats it.

● The material used

A majority of the rabbit houses currently are built with metal, wood and even plastic. Now, as I said earlier, the material used to build the cage depends on the exposure of the cage to the natural elements(sun and rain).

Aside from natural elements determining the type of cage, choose a cage that would not give you issues when you clean. It should be easy to clean.

Many rabbit houses have floors made of wire and a removable pan under them for easy removal of waste.

Rabbits can however develop sore feet (hocks) because they stand and walk on the wire floors all day long.

This can be reduced by covering a part of the floor with something solid, like wood. This wood would be a resting spot for the rabbits and reduce the possibility of them developing sore feet.

The Best Foods for Rabbits

The rate at which a rabbit eats is determined by the breed and of course, the age. Rabbits eat green vegetables, cucumber, carrots and grass, among others. They can also be fed with remnants of food from your house.

Rabbits need variation in their feed. They need assorted food choices. This would ensure that they get the necessary nutrients that they need for growth and health.

As you add new foods to their diet, give them a small amount of the new food daily and check for how they react to it. When they have adapted to the food you can increase its quantity to the amount that they need.

When you give the rabbits their food make sure to place the flood in their feeder, not on the floor. Since they would be wandering around their cage, they can walk all over their food and ruin it with their fasces. Remove the unfinished food from the previous feeding when you go to give them more food.

Rabbits eat less than they eat at night. This is majorly caused by the heat of the day. They are more active at night and so they consume more food. If you would be feeding your rabbits with concentrate along with the other foods, you can give concentrates in the mornings and others in the evenings. Along with the food, they need clean water.

Profitable Rabbits Breeds to Farm

Some of the profitable grasscutter breeds are listed below with what they are reared for.

● Californian: Meat
● Satin: Fur and Meat
● White New Zealand: Fur and meat
● New Zealand: Meat
● Champagne d’Argent: Meat
● American Chinchilla: Fur
● Silver Martens: Fur
● English Spot: Meat and Lab
● Checkered Giants: Fur
● Rex: Fur
● Angora: Fur and Meat

You would not find all these breeds in your area. Choose the best among the ones available to you to start your grasscutter business.

The Best Time to Start Breeding

Cold weather is more favorable for rabbits than hot weather. However, to be able to create more body heat, they need additional food. Their body heat is caught by their fur, allowing them to stay warm.

Hot weather is less bearable for the rabbits. They would require your help to stay cool. Hot weather can result in overheating in the rabbits which can result in tiredness, low productivity, and even death.

Unlike during the cold weather, rabbits reduce their consumption of food but not to the point that they take just little worrying amounts.

Heat can be reduced by giving the animals cool water to drink, taking them out of their cages and underneath a tree’s shade, and placing fans with them.


Rabbit farming is a business you should consider if you want to start an agricultural business. I hope this article answered your questions. Do you have more questions? Drop it in the comment box.

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Farming Business

How to Start Goat Farming For Beginners

Goat farming

Goat farming business is one of the most popular livestock businesses in Nigeria. Some people rear two or more goats for personal benefit while some rear for business.

Goat farming business involves the raising and rearing of goats on a small or large scale.

Goats are on high demand for their meat, especially their head, in many restaurants. Goat heads are used to make a soup called ‘Isi ewu’.

Goats are one of the major sources of meat in Nigeria. They are used to celebrate many festivals including Christmas, Salah, weddings, birthdays and many other occasions.

Goats are easy to rear and do not require much attention. For small scale farming, they can be reared in a compound, while a large scale farming would require more land space.

This business is definitely one you can do on the side along with your full-time work.

Is Goat Farming Profitable?

Goat farming is a lucrative business and goats are easy to rear. Their meat is widely eaten across the country and is therefore in high demand.

Since goat meat is a highly required commodity, you can’t go wrong with starting your own goat farm.

How Much Goat Farmers Make

Goat farms need little investment to start but the profit, in the end, is much more than the investment.

This profit is gotten from the meat and the milk for meat-producing and milk-producing goat farms respectively.
Profits can also be gotten from their byproducts which includes droppings, skin, hair and bones.

Tips to Start Goat Farming



Your Business Plan:

Planning is very important, especially in the beginning. How much are you intending to pour in the business? Are you going small scale or large scale? (It’s advisable to start with a small scale business if you’re just starting).

What are you rearing the goats for? Meat, milk or both? Have a plan that covers what your farm entails before you begin.

Get Knowledge:

Get the necessary knowledge you need to run your goat farm. Getting knowledge is important so that you don’t fall for little and avoidable mistakes.

Learn how to take care of the goats, their reproduction and gestation period, symptoms of diseases, and how to properly care for them.

Find A Good Land :

The location of the land for the farm must have pasture available or must be close to pasture. The farm must also have enough space to allow the goats roam freely. A spacious farm allows for less possibility of the spread of diseases.

Construct Infrastructures:

Sheds must also be built to keep the goats together when it’s dark, raining or when the sun is harsh. Since goats move in groups, it’s not advisable to separate them in different spaces or sheds.

Other infrastructure like fences to prevent the goats from getting lost and intruders from getting in, constant water supply, lodging house(s) that can accommodate you or your farm workers, should be made available before the arrival of your goats.

Get A Good Breed:

Get a good breed of goats. If you’d be rearing goats for their meat, get a breed that produces more meat and if you’d be rearing for milk, get a breed that produces milk abundantly.

Goat Feed:

Goats feed on pasture. It’s their original choice of food. Therefore, your goat farm must have pasture. You can plant grasses on your land or arrange for a nearby land where it is approved and favourable for your goats to graze.

There are also healthy processed goat feeds you can buy to feed the goats exclusively or along with pasture.

Get A Veterinary Doctor:

Goats need medical check-ups by a Vet doctor once in a while to check and confirm that they’re in good health and to quickly identify sick goats and separate them from healthy ones.


As your goats mature, discover markets and the market prices so that you have an idea of how much they are worth before you take them to the market for sale.

Startup Cost And Requirements

The startup cost must be sufficient to acquire a good land with good pasture, facilities needed for the smooth run of the farm and the purchase of the goats.

Types of Goat Species to Farm in Nigeria

There are several species of goats reared in Nigeria. These species include both local breeds which are resident in the country and adaptable breeds from other countries.

Local breeds include:

  1. African dwarf
  2. Maradi/Red Sokoto
  3. Pygmy
  4. Sahelian

Foreign breeds includes:

  1. Boer
  2. Saanen
  3. Nubian
  4. Alpine
  5. Toggenburg
  6. Jamnapari

Which Breed of Goat is Most Profitable?

The most profitable species of goats to rear for meat is the Boer breed. This breed, unlike most breeds, can produce a good amount of meat even at a year old. It weighs about 300 pounds when mature. Australia is the top exporter of Boer meat.

The Saanen breed is the best goat species for milk production. A mature Saanen goat can produce 1-3 gallons of milk in one day.

Challenges of Goat farming Business

Outbreak of Disease:

Diseases are a major challenge for livestock farms, including goat farms. These diseases include brucellosis, coccidiosis and salmonellosis, among others.

Diseases can be prevented by regular vaccination and deworming. Routine checks by veterinary doctors would also limit the spread of diseases. During these checks, weak animals and ones with visible signs of a disease would be separated from the rest

Limited Access to Pasture:

This problem may arise in certain areas where there is low availability of pasture or during certain seasons like the dry season.

This problem can be tackled by growing a pasture in your farm and consistently watering it during the dry season.


Goat farming business is easy to run and needs little attention and labour. Despite its simplicity, this business has good returns. So, you get the ease (as long as you do it right) and good profit.

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Farming Business

How to Start Mushroom Farming In 2023

Mushroom Farming In Nigeria

Do you know that commercial Mushroom farming is a lucrative business with little recognition in Nigeria? Even so, mushroom farming involves the breeding of edible mushrooms for sale.

Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies of a kind of fungi. They grow on their source of food, which is usually a rotting wood, and on the soil.

Mushrooms occur in various breeds with some containing toxins that are harmful to the body while some contain nutrients which benefits the body. Apart from the many nutrients mushrooms are a source to, they have a delightful taste.

The demand for mushrooms is high while its supply is low in Nigeria. Therefore, the supply is supported by exporting mushrooms from other countries. That’s reason beginner mushroom farmers can tap in now and start making profit.

Is Mushroom Farming Profitable?

Mushroom farming in Nigeria is on low availability whereas its demand is high. With this, starting your mushroom farm would bring you to a market where the product is in high need but there are few suppliers. Therefore, you don’t have to worry about not finding customers.

Also, mushroom farming takes some effort (what business doesn’t?) but the profit is worth more than the effort. This business can make you a millionaire as long as learn the know-how and do it.

How Much to Make From Mushroom Farming

Mushroom farmers make millions! The amount you profit at the end of one season is, of course, as a result of the amount you invest in mushroom seeds.

For instance, you made 25 bags of oysters which weigh about 500 kilos. 1 kilo of oysters is N2000, 500 kilos of oyster gives you 2000 × 500 = 1,000,000 naira.

Mushroom Farming At Home

You want to start mushroom farming at home. Its not the kind of business that selects location. You can create the kind of habitat suitable for growing mushrooms at home.  Here’s what you need to do.

Get The Know-How:

To start anything, you need to know how to do it or you’ll make the slightest mistake you could have avoided.

This article already gives you a basic knowledge of mushroom farming. Read more about it and also learn from mushroom farmers.

Acquire a Space:

Get a space for your farm. This space should be large enough to accommodate your mushrooms if using the wood log medium. For the sawdust medium, you can use a darkened room with enough ventilation in your house (to save some money) or build a farmhouse.

Substrate or Medium:

Get the medium or substrate needed to grow the mushrooms. Examples of this substrate are sawdust and bran. The substrate must be disinfected to remove microorganisms which may affect the growth of the mushrooms.

Container and in-Betweens:

The container can be a plastic bag or something else that has enough space to allow the mushroom spawns (seeds) to grow. Further more, in-betweens are equipment for sanitation which includes gloves and disinfectants and sprayers to mist the mushrooms. Because good sanitation is a very important factor in a mushroom farm which can either make or break it.

Getting The Seeds for Mushroom Farming

The seeds called spawns must be of good quality. All in all, aim for quality, not inexpensiveness. And make sure to get your seeds from a reliable source.

Mushroom Spawn Suppliers:

  • Prokee Import And Export Merchants.
  • KC Farm
  • Anighoro farms (based in Lagos, Ogun & and Edo state)
  • JEMAC Alternatives Nig Ltd
  • Jomolu Farms
  • David Nigeria Limited
  • TJY Nigeria
  • Mcprint Systems Limited
  • LTC Mushroom
  • Sweet Fungus Limited
  • ACEPRD Mushroom Farm (University Of Jos)
  • Afudem Farm
  • Santa Nigeria Limited
  • Paramount Integrated Ltd
  • Sunnykem Multibiz Company
  • Ozias Nigeria Limited
  • Lexon International Enterprise

You can also get mushroom seeds from The Mushroom Association in Nigeria.

Mushroom Farming Setup Cost & Requirements

The cost to start initially ranges from N100,000-N500,000. Startup would be on the less side if some of the essentials are present, and if you are doing it at home without land cost.

Also, cost for subsequent breeding seasons would  be less since the necessary facilities are already available.

Startup cost is required to cover the acquisition of land, the building of a farmhouse (if you don’t have one already), and all the materials needed for the smooth run of the farm.

Best Ways to Make a Mushroom Farm

Moreover, to build a mushroom farm, you need a medium– a substrate where the mushroom seed is planted which can allow it to grow. This medium can either be a log of wood or sawdust.

Sawdust Medium

Sawdust is cheap to get. A bag can be sold for N50 or less if you’re buying many in bulk. And you can get it from any wood market across Nigeria.

For the sawdust medium:

  • Get bags of sawdust and sterilize the sawdust to remove microorganisms that would harm the mushrooms.
  • Place the sawdust in a plastic bag or any other container that can accommodate the growth of the mushrooms.
  • Combine the seeds of the mushroom (spawns) with the sawdust in the container.
  • The mushroom spawns need an initial heat before they grow. So, place the container with the mixture of sawdust and spawns under direct sunlight to heat up for some time.
  • After heating, place the container in a dark room or space. This is where the growing process occurs. The room should have good ventilation and be at normal room temperature.
  • Pour some soil over the mixture and spray it with water regularly to keep it moistened for about 4 weeks as the spawns grow into mushrooms.

Wood Log Medium

Furthermore, to use this medium, you would need logs of wood cut into several pieces. These pieces of wood must be decontaminated and must be a good breeding area for the mushrooms.

To plant the mushroom spawns:

  • Make holes into the pieces of wood and place the spawns in these holes.
  • Keep the logs under a shade to protect the spawns from direct sunlight.
  • Spray the spawns regularly as they grow into mushrooms.

4 Categories of Mushrooms

The four main categories of mushrooms are:

  1. Edible mushrooms
  2. Medicinal mushrooms
  3. Poisonous mushrooms
  4. Miscellaneous Group

As can be expected, edible mushrooms are mushroom you can eat as food. The medicinal mushrooms are used in taking care of certain ailments and can be used by pharmaceutical companies in the production of drugs. A poisonous mushroom is deadly. They are mushrooms that are both medicinal as well as edible. While miscellaneous group are those which contains mushrooms whose values are not yet established.

Also, these edible mushrooms are packed with protein, vitamins and also contain moderate amount of vitamin. But they are very low in carbohydrate. They are better referred to as vegetables, and they are absorbable by the body without producing waste.

There are common edible mushroom species in Nigeria. The Pleurotus tuber-regium or tuberous mushroom for example is popular in the south eastern Nigeria.

Popular Mushroom Species

Some of the edible mushroom species to farm in Nigeria include:

  • Shiitake (Letinula Edodes): This species of mushroom is said to reduce tumors. It’s widely grown in Asian countries, especially Japan.
  • Oysters (Pleurotus Ostreatus): This species have antibacterial and antioxidant abilities. It may also fight excess cholesterol in one’s body.
  • Morels (Morchella Esculenta): Morels also have antioxidant abilities like Oysters and are rich in vitamin C.
  • Chanterelles (Cantharellus Cibarius): This species, like Shiitake, is widely grown in Asia along with Europe’s northern regions and North America. They are rich in vitamins C and D.

Challenges of Mushroom Farming

Moreover, the major challenge facing mushroom businesses in Nigeria is the inadequate information about the health benefits of mushrooms and the support they can add to the economy.

Mushroom farming is an untapped resource that can generate employment and income to Nigerians if only more people know about it.

5 Stages of Mushroom Cultivation

While mushroom farming may follow these five stages, not each step requires careful handling for best results. Because all mushrooms may not follow all the five steps mentioned above. It depends on each species. And some species may require specific conditions for their growth and development.


Interestingly, to start mushroom farming, you need to first prepare the bed using different substrates. There are different types of substrates suitable for mushroom farming in Nigeria. Below are common ones:

  • Banana leaves
  • Banana stems
  • Oil palm fruit fiber
  • Oil palm bunch
  • Banana peels
  • Corn husk


Spawning simple means mushroom seed planting. This process is to create a vegetative state for the mushrooms. When they are spawned, after a while, the mycelium will grow and run through the system in few days – which is noticed by the white color. You don’t leave it like this, because you don’t want to get the fruiting bodies.

That leads us to the next stage, which is known as casing.


Here the key ingredient is calcium carbonate soil – which is required to cover the mushroom white vegetative state. This process is to convert the mushroom from a vegetative to productive phase.

Casing starves the mushroom of nutrients, which in return inspires the mushrooms to fight for survival, by producing spores, leading to forming fruiting bodies that the farmer can harvest.

Harvesting or Picking

This is the most important stage of cultivation for mushroom farming. The initial first day harvest is followed by another harvest two or three days after the first harvest. You repeat harvest again after two or three days up to fourth or fifth time. When you notice the yield is decreasing, you can stop harvesting to give it more time to grow again.

Also, consider the specie of mushroom when harvesting. Some species may not support frequent harvest due to their yield level.


As you can see, your package must follow international standard, especially if you are farming mushrooms for export. Note that the best packaging always win. Canned mushroom is good for export market. Drying your mushroom is another process in packaging and it helps in storing it for long period.

Mushroom Markets In Nigeria

Mushroom marketing opportunities includes selling to end users who may have capacity to consume more mushrooms. You should consider the following market opportunities:

  • Restaurants
  • Hotels
  • Super markets
  • Households
  • Export markets

While it may be easier to target restaurants, hotels and super markets in Nigeria for your mushroom farming produce, selling directly to households may require online presence. Targeting export market may also be a huge selling option if your produce very large quantity or you are creating a large mushroom farm.

Mushroom Export Opportunities

In addition, mushroom export can take different forms. It can be exported fresh, dried or canned. However, as a beginner mushroom farmer, it’s recommended you don’t go this alone. Starting mushroom farming maybe simply and easily explained in a post like this, but exporting mushrooms may not be that simple.

There are laws, procedures and export requirements you may need to be abreast of. Ignorance may cost you more than you can afford to pay. And since policies can change and different export countries may have different rules, I advise that you join the Nigerian Mushroom association.

Besides, your membership will keep you abreast of how other members are doing their export and you will also get members free help from the association in exporting your mushroom.


in summary, mushroom farming is interesting and it’s valuable. But not many people are involved. It’s easy to run and yields magnanimously in a few months. In short, this business is one you should consider. Just learn the process and follow them and you’d have for yourself a booming business. Mushrooms are mostly consumed as livestock like sheep, but it’s a vegetable.

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How to Start Pig Farming In Nigeria (2023)

Pig farming Nigeria

Pig farming is a kind of livestock farming which involves the rearing of pigs. Pigs, if nurtured and reared well, mature for market quicker than most livestock. Their breeding rate (about 10 healthy piglets) also contributes to providing more profit to their farmer.

Pig farming isn’t gross as it’s stereotyped to be. In fact, an emphasis is placed on cleanliness and biosecurity like other livestock farms. Maybe even more than other farms.

Pig farming as you already guessed is the rearing of pigs for commercial purposes.

How Profitable Is Pig Farming?

Pig farming is highly profitable. It however doesn’t have the recognition it deserves in Nigeria. Pig meat (pork) is a good source of animal protein. The nutritional benefits pork is capable of giving trumps over religious biases some people have about it.

How Much to Make From Pig Farming

A mature pig can be sold for N35,000-N40,000. The sale of 50 mature pigs for N35,000 would give you 50 × 35,000= N1,750,000. If you raise 200 mature pigs in a year, your return would be 200 × 35,000= 7 million naira.

However, the market-quality of the pigs depends on the quality of the pig’s breed and its overall health.

The Demand For Pig Meat

The demand for pig meat (pork) is high in Nigeria but there are few localized sources. About 80% of the pork consumed in Nigeria is imported.

Pork is a major source of animal protein and though there are religious discriminations against pork, the nutritional benefits can not be ignored.



Tips To Start Pig Farming

Starting your pig farm can seem a little daunting and confusing at first ’cause where do you start from

Here are some tips you should know before launching your pig farm:

Startup Capital:

The startup capital is an important component that determines the others. It must be enough to cover vaccination, housing and feed for the pigs.

Free-Range or Intensive:

Pigs can either be reared in a free-range system or an intensive system.

In the free-range system, the pigs are allowed to roam about and graze on a fenced piece of land. In this system, the animals have enough space to themselves and there is less possibility of the spread of diseases.

Shade must be provided in the free-range system to prevent the pigs from getting sunburns and to provide a cool atmosphere for the pigs.

In an intensive system, the pigs are kept in a secured building and their movements are usually limited to the house. The animals might be allowed to roam on fenced grounds and are later returned to the building.

There must be enough space to accommodate the animals in the building to prevent overcrowding.

What You Need For Pig Farming


The house the pigs are kept in must allow enough air in and be cool even in hot periods. This is because pigs are vulnerable to stress from heat. The building should also be spacious enough for the number of pigs accommodated in it.

Getting the pigs:

When getting the weaners (little pigs), ensure that they are of good genetics and in good health. Although we sometimes go for the cheaper alternative, don’t do that while purchasing the new pigs. Purchase the ones of good quality.

Availability of water:

The availability of water is a very important factor that determines the proper growth and function of pigs. On average, a young pig needs about 10 liters of water in a day while an adult pig needs 25-50 liters in a day.

That is a lot of water!

Apart from the nutritional benefits of water, pigs also use water to regulate their body temperature. This is also a reason why they bathe in mud. There must be a constant supply of water available and a backup reserved water in case the supply of water is cut short.

Quality of feed:

What kind of feed would you be providing your pigs? The feed must be a balanced diet, providing your swine all the needed nutrition.


When your pigs are getting mature for the market, find a good market for them and sell at profitable rates.

Start small:

It is advisable to start small when you’re just beginning. This would enable you to test your knowledge and capability. And it would also shorten the number of possible casualties that may occur due to your experience level. As soon as you get the hang of it, increase the number of weaners the next time.

Pig Farming Cost And Requirements

The cost of starting up a pig farm must be enough to cover the land, housing, the pigs, vaccines, feed and feeding equipment.

Pig Farm Construction

The construction of a pig farm solely depends on whether it’s a free-range or an intensive housing system.

For an intensive housing system, a building with enough ventilation and light would be erected. This building must be able to keep them warm during the cold season and keep them cool during hot seasons.

For a free-range system, the field provided for the pigs to graze and roam on must be fenced to prevent them from wandering till they’re lost. Also, a house must be built to gather the pigs together when it’s dark to protect them from predators and cold.

Light, water and shade must be made available to the pigs in either kind of housing system. Good quality feed and water must also be provided.

The Best Pig Species

The best species of pigs in Nigeria are:

  • Local breeds: They came in different colours: white, black, brown.
  • Foreign breeds include:
  • Duroc: They are red in colour and are muscular. Also, their growth rate is faster than the other breeds.
  • Hampshire: They are black in colour with a white band around their body. They are also muscular.
  • Landrace: The pigs are white in colour and they have long bodies.
  • Yorkshire: This breed is white in colour and also has long bodies.

Challenges of Pig farming Business

Disease and infection:

This is a major problem many livestock farmers face. The spread of disease can be prevented by not overcrowding, by vaccinating the pigs and by examining them regularly for signs of an infection.

Acquisition of land:

Finding land that not only accommodates the pigs well but one that also accommodates their waste products might be hard to find. Also, when choosing a land, consider it’s closeness to markets, access to water and convenient roads.

Cost of feed:

Pigs feed on several ranges of food: foods humans eat, vegetables, leftovers from restaurants, local markets and many other scraps. And the cost little or nothing.

Startup Capital:

Fresh and young entrepreneurs face the problem of low or no startup capital. They may have the idea and knowledge to start a pig farm but the capital is absent.

This challenge can be tackled by saving, investing, receiving a loan, lending from friends and family, selling stuff you don’t need, and many more.


Pig farming is an interesting kind of livestock farming. It is an overlooked business, therefore, there are only a few farms in Nigeria. Even with this, it is consumed significantly in the country.

Pig farming requires time, money and care like other kinds of livestock farming. Like most livestock farms (if not all), pig farming is highly profitable. Gather the necessary knowledge you need to build a successful pig farming business and start building your farm.

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How to Start Fish Farming In Nigeria (2023)

Fish farming

Do you know fish farming is one of the most lucrative businesses in Nigeria and many other parts of the world? Fish farming involves the breeding of fishes for personal or commercial purposes.

Fishes contain lots of minerals and vitamins. They abundantly contain iron, magnesium, zinc, calcium and more.

Moreover, fishes contain Omega 3 fatty acids, which aids the proper functioning of the heart, and are good sources of minerals and vitamins. Unlike most meat, they have no cholesterol and this brings them to the top of the food chain for the middle-aged and old sect of the population.

Because, fishes and their products (e.g. fish oil) are prescribed by medical staff to supplement or increase some minerals and vitamins in a person.

Tips to Start Fish Farming

The demand for fish is high and increasing as more people discover its usefulness. Also, since it doesn’t have cholesterol like meat, its demand among middle-aged and old people is high.


Get equipped with the knowledge you need to start your fish farm. Learn from a fish farmer for as long as you should (preferably about 2 months). The success of your fish farm (and other kinds of livestock farms) won’t come by chance or luck but by knowing what you ought to know.

Land and Location:

Furthermore, the kind of land you get solely rests on your pocket and the size of your business. You can start with the space in your compound if it’s enough to accommodate the fish ponds. You can also start with a half plot of land or a full plot or more, as long as it’s within your capacity.

The location of the land doesn’t matter because fishes don’t create environmental issues.

Build Ponds:

Once you’ve got a space for the ponds, the next thing to do is build ponds. For this part, an expert is required. You need an expert in pond construction or expert advice from a good fish farm so that everything is measured correctly and all fall in the right place.

Accessible Water Source:

Natural origins of water (streams, boreholes, unchlorinated well water, etc.) must be readily available since water is the habitat of fishes.

Get a Tank or Reservoir:

The tank or reservoir is where water from the natural source is pumped into. This water is carried through the pipes that connect with the ponds and fills the ponds.

Getting the Fishes:

Ensure that the supplier is reputable and that the fishes are healthy and of a good breed.

Fish Farming Cost And Requirements

By the way, the startup cost is required to cover the construction of the ponds, the tank or reservoir, the source of natural water, and all in between. The startup cost depends on your capital at hand. Thankfully, there are several kinds of fish ponds whose prices vary widely.

Fish Pond Construction

By contrast, there are several kinds of fish ponds: earthen, concrete, plastic, wooden, fiberglass and embankment fish ponds. But earth and concrete are the two major types.

Earthen Fish Pond:

It’s easy to build. What you need to do is dig a hole in a specific area of the land with a shallow and a deep end/lip. The depth of the shallow lip should be at 1m and the deep lip at 2m.

Concrete Fish Pond:

This involves the use of concrete and blocks to build walls about 5cm thick and a floor about 10cm thick.

Embankment Fish Pond:

Also,  it directly involves a natural water source. A fish pond is made from the natural water source (e.g. stream) by segregating a part of the source with barriers.

Fiberglass, Wooden and Plastic Fish Ponds:

These fish ponds are built with fiberglass, wood and plastic respectively. Your fish pond should be built with inlets and outlets that bring water in and out respectively. Also, a regular water supply is very essential for all types of fish ponds.



Types of Species for Fish Farming

Among the various species of fishes available, only a few can be bred. The three main species of fishes farmers breed are:


Catfishes are one of the easiest to nurture so most fish farmers choose it, especially when they’re just starting.
Also, catfishes are the type of fish most likely to be paired with a poultry farm because the birds’ droppings can be used to augment the feed for the fishes and to fertilize the pond.


Mackerel tops the chart as the most eaten type of fish in Nigeria. Mackerel fish is popularly known as “Titus”. They reside in the saltwater habitat and are only caught by fishermen. However, they can’t be bred yet because research is still ongoing about their biology and the possibility of replicating their habitat.


Tilapia ranks second as the most famous fish in Nigeria. And they resides in the freshwater habitat. It’s the easiest type of fish to breed and it reproduces and grows at an insanely fast rate.

Challenges of Fish Farming


The capital to start a small scale fish farm can be as high as N500,000-N1,500,000. Whereas the capital for a bigger fish farm blows up into millions. Because a fish farm needs more structuring than some other livestock farms.

However, this cost can be reduced by building tarpaulin or plastic ponds which cost about N70,000-N90,000 and are also movable.

Building a fish farm in your compound might reduce the cost to some extent. This is if certain things are already available like the natural water source, land and a tank. What is left is the pond construction, plumbing work, getting the fishes, and everything in between.

Price of Fish:

The price of fish sold by fish farmers is higher in comparison with fishes sold by fishermen due to the cost of feed and management. Consequently, most people would rather get low-priced good quality fishes from fishermen than high-priced good-quality fishes from fish farmers.

Zero Byproduct:

Fishes unlike many livestock animals have no byproducts. Therefore, their farmer lacks other channels of income other than the fishes themselves.


In summary, fish farming is another lucrative livestock business. The availability of fish farms is also on the increasing side as more people find out about its profitability. Also, with fish farming, you not only make a huge profit at the end, but you also make an addition to the agricultural sector.

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10 Most Lucrative Livestock Farming (2023)

Livestock farming

Do you know livestock farming in Nigeria is a gold mine? And I mean it literally. Because livestock income can produced actual gold, and its the reason everyone should have a livestock farm. However, it requires hard work and patience but that is where some people get a bit discouraged.

Human beings need food and the major food sources are plants and livestock. Therefore, if we’d be feeding on them, they should be reproduced so that there is enough for everyone and they don’t go extinct.

The agricultural sector in Nigeria is one that needs more development and spotlight. Gone are the days when agriculture was done by only the poor and illiterate. Nevertheless, more people, especially young people are coming into the knowledge of the prospects of agriculture and farming to their financial status and the economy of the country.

What is Livestock Farming?

Primarily, livestock farming involves breeding and managing domestic livestock for human consumption, for their meats and products. Livestock products include eggs, milk, wool, leather, manure, horns, bones, and etcetera.

Types of Livestock Farming In Nigeria

  1. Poultry farming
  2. Pig farming
  3. Cattle farming
  4. Snail farming
  5. Fish farming
  6. Sheep farming
  7. Goat farming
  8. Rabbit farming
  9. Duck farming
  10. Grasscutter farming

How Livestock Farming Works

For the most part, in Nigeria livestock farming is usually done at a subsistent level. It’s mostly small scale farmers who engage in livestock farming to feed their families and sell the remnant to buy other foodstuff they need.

Types of Livestock Farming

There are several types of livestock farming system you can adopt in Nigeria. Below are the different systems of farming livestock that you can apply to your farm business.

  • Intensive Livestock Farming
  • Defining Intensive Livestock Farming
  • Semi-intensive Livestock Farming
  • Extensive Livestock Farming
  • Nomadic Livestock Farming
  • Transhumant Livestock Farming
  • Organic Livestock Farming

Intensive Livestock Farming

As the name implies, intensive livestock farming is the process in which the livestock is housed, to provide the right temperature, feeding time, monitored healthcare, with the intension to produce fatter and healthier livestock.

Also, it involves the selection of breeds, depending on the types of production.  However, intensive livestock farming is both capital and labor intensive.

Benefits of Livestock Farming

There are so many benefits to derive from livestock farming. But let’s look at some of the benefits of livestock farming in Nigeria. In line with the definition of livestock farming as:

  • The development of humanity and the economy of the world
  • Generation of high-quality food products such as meat, egg, milk, cheese, etc.
  • Food processing industries, handicrafts, tourism and general hospitality
  • Employment opportunity generation and as a source of income
  • Personal hobby for some people
  • Foreign exchange generation through export
  • Also, livestock can be used for some special farm operations like plowing, harrowing and etcetera.

How to Start Raising Livestock

Starting out on livestock farming business require you to acquire relevant knowledge about livestock types, their different species for commercial farming, management methods for effective product, and understand of the market to help you dispose off your livestock on maturity.

Furthermore, you need to know how to prepare the land and housing for the types of livestock you intend to farm. You will also need to learn about food types and feeding method of the livestock.

Revenue Potentials Of Livestock Farming

Livestock farming is capable of producing wealth for anyone, as long as you know what you’re doing. Interestingly, the rate at which some of them produce gains would return the cost you spent on starting up and give you some extra profit within two years.

For instance, in a poultry business where you’re breeding layers, they start laying eggs at around 18 weeks of age. If you have 100 hens and each produces one egg a day, the eggs produced in 365 days equals 36,500.

And if eggs sells for N80 each, 36500 eggs would give you N2,92,000 in a year. Now, multiple that income by 10 or 20, assuming you started with 1,000 or 2,000 layers.

Opportunities In Livestock Farming

As a rule, investing in livestock involves acquiring a number of them, raising them till they mature and selling them at a much higher price. This kind of investment is fascinating because you see the livestock grow daily and appreciate right in front of you.

Although, investing in livestock farming have a certain level of risk but then, which business doesn’t. These risks are the challenges facing livestock businesses, some of which includes disease outbreak and high cost of feed.

Notes that risks can be reduced to absolute minimal with solutions like a vaccination that reduces the possibility of a disease outbreak. Therefore, the risks are not crippling. As long as you cater to the health of your livestock and give them what they need, they’ll be fine.



Financial Requirements

Moreover, to start any livestock business, there’s a need for a startup cost. This startup cost is required to cover the land, farmhouse, feed, younglings to be bred, water and all necessary infrastructure. Also, the startup cost differs from business to business. It solely depends on what each business requires.

Challenges Of Livestock Farming


The problem of capital is one that most new farmers face. But the capital needed for the startup of a livestock business can be a little on the high side sometimes and this can be overwhelming for a new farmer. Also, saving, loans, borrowing from friends and family, and government grants or aids are possible helps that can lift this problem.

Obtaining a Land:

Additionally, a good land with valuable soil for farming and livestock breeding might be hard to come by. This is due to various reasons which include the high price of land, swindlers posing as landowners and finding quality lands in good locations.


Good transportation is a major issue for farmers. When the roads connecting farms with markets are poor and dysfunctional, they cause harm to the animals being transported and can even lead to the death of some animals and damage to farm products.

Apart from roads, other transport systems like the railway are not really efficient in Nigeria. The railway transport system is a very effective way to transport farm products and livestock animals due to the stability and maximum safety it offers. Therefore, this aspect of transportation must be awoken.


Disease outbreak among livestock animal is as real their dung and anything else that’s real about them. An uncontrolled disease outbreak in a farm of livestock animals has the capacity of causing a mass death or low productivity of the animals.

Animal Feed:

The feed livestock animals consume take up a high percentage of expenses. This is caused by the elevated price of processed feeds.

This problem can be countered by preparing the animals’ feed by yourself. This method is cheaper and helps you use the saved amount for something else.

How to Overcome The Challenges

Enlightenment: More people need to be enlightened that agriculture isn’t just a rough work that yields nothing but a gold mine that needs to be tapped into.

Nigerians, the young and old must see agriculture in a new light. It’s happening already but it needs to spread throughout the country till we all become agri-knowing.

Government Aids:

Livestock businesses require investment and this investment can be difficult to get sometimes. This is where government aids should come in. Aids to assist farmers, especially new ones, to fund their business and provide essential mechanical tools to facilitate their work.

Fixing The Transport System:

For proper and safe transport of livestock and food products, the transportation systems in Nigeria has to be fixed. Railway transport should be improved and made better and road transport restored

Vaccination and Medical Checks:

Diseases are a major issue in all livestock farms. They can however be reduced by regular medical checks of every animal. These checks would ensure that the animals are in good shape and sick animals would be spotted and separated during the checks.

Furthermore, vaccination is also an important preventive measure to avoid the spread of diseases. Livestock animals should be given the necessary vaccine to strengthen their immune system against the invasion of diseases.


In summary, livestock farming has its challenges but these challenges don’t trump the many benefits and gains they bring. As more light is shed on livestock businesses and as more people engage in them, the unemployed would have jobs and food security would increase in the country.

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Farming Business

How to Start Snail Farming In Nigeria (2023)

Snail farming

Do you want to start snail Farming? According to Snail World, it takes between 6 weeks to 5 years for snails to mature, depending on the specie of snail you are breeding. And result shows that snail Farming requires low startup capital but is highly profitable. But one snail cycle can generate over N10,000,000 net profit

One of the reasons you should invest in snail farming is because it’s a low risk business. However, among all the Livestock businesses, snail Farming requires small startup capital, with very low operating cost too. And you can start right from your backyard.

There’s also a huge market for snails. Although, the most demand for snails is for cooking, but the huge potential is in the cosmetics industry. This demand is increasing rapidly. The market demand for snails is said to reach 50,000 tones by 2025.

Snail Farming is a money making venture. The global market for snail is worth about $1 billion in 2019, growing at around 4.5% per annum. Snails reproduce mostly in the second year of their life. And with the right breeding snails, you can make lots of money Farming snails.

How Snail Farming Work

To begin with, snail farming is one of the top businesses in Nigeria. It is easy to start up and has a low risk. Snail farming refers to the rearing of snails for commercial purposes: for its meat, eggs and slime. The slime is used for cosmetic purposes and the meat and eggs for edibles.

Everything about snail Farming is easier and cost effective. It requires less labour in Farming snails. Snails don’t require too much attention. Even their feeding is not a problem. They eat more of vegetables and fruits, most of which can be gotten from the wild.

Also, it takes just 21 to 32 days for snail eggs to hatch, with snails about 4 mm long. A snail can grow up to 10 mm per month, and in 6 months some species can grow to about 35 mm long. It takes just 6 months to 16 months for a snail to be sexually matured. But this depends on the weather condition of the environment and the vial ability of calcium.

One more thing about snail Farming is the low cost of housing for the snail. You can start very small with just 10 snails. Most snails are hermaphrodites. They have both male and female reproductive organs. And you don’t require huge housing to store your snails. You can start small with just a car tire.



Why Snail Meat is In High Demand

The demand for snail meat in Nigeria is greater than its supply. Snails are one of the major sources of meat in the country but there are few sources. There are few major snail farms in the country, and many of them are just small farms.

According to some statistics, the annual snail consumption in Nigeria is around 7.5 million kg. Most of these is exported to Europe and North America. And America imports about $4 million dollars in snail meat annually.

But locally, they demand is high but the cost of fully grown snail is also high. A raw matured snail cost between N250 to N500. This is based on the sizes. You can multiply this with the target of snails you hope to harvest in the next 6 months.

To put it more simply, for a healthy skin and body, snail meat contains essential nutrients you require. You can eat snail meat as freshly processed or as grilled snail meat. However, getting it from a snail farm you trust is important, as what the snails were fed during their growth stage is important.

Other reasons you should eat snail meat is for its ideal protein level. It also have low level of cholesterol and a rich source of vitamins. It’s a supplement for calcium and magnesium. But most importantly, it’s an effective prevention against certain form of cancer and cough.

Tips to Start Snail Farm

I have put together a simple step to help you get started. There are many reasons I would encourage you to invest in snail farming. It’s very lucrative, cost effective to run, and requires little startup capital. You can start snail Farming immediately after reading this article, right at your backyard.

Also, its an environmentally friendly business. And snails are highly productive. One snail can lay up to 200 to 500 years in one clutch, and can lay eggs 3 to 4 times in a year. Imagine one snail laying about 600 to 800 eggs per annum. 100 snails would be around 60,000 to 80,000 eggs.

#1 – Start-up Capital

The capital needs to cover the housing, the snails, and every necessary thing. The capital depends on the size of the farm and how big you want it. You can start with N50,000. It can be less or more depending on your snail Farming business plan.

The output for snail business is however higher. This is because the snails would mate and lay as much as 200-400 eggs. These eggs would then hatch into another generation of snails.

#2 – Housing

The housing for your snails has to be secure as the snails would want to escape. Also, ensure that there is enough space in the housing. Overcrowding snails in a small space affects their growth and development negatively, causing poor growth and dwarfism.

Choose farmland with quality soil and space as this also prevents the spread of diseases among the snails.

#3 – Acquiring the Snails

The snails you purchase must be healthy and gotten during the rainy season because it’s their breeding period and they’re surplus. Snails are scarce in the dry season.

Buy only fresh quality snails from the farm or you can get from the market. But be careful to buy only healthy, fully grown snails. The snails should be able to start laying eels in no time and help populate your farm. The signs of matured snails are noticeable on its shell.

The cost of buying breeders snail called point of lay may vary. Expect to pay as much as N350 per snail breeder, depending on the snail specie you want.

#4 – Feeding and Care

Snails feed on a variety of vegetables and fruits which includes banana, pawpaw, cucumber, cabbage, pear, waterleaf, lettuce and moringa among many others.

Moringa leaves are an awesome source of protein. Interestingly, fresh moringa leaves have about the same amount of protein in an egg while dried moringa leaves have quadruple- four times more protein.

Simply make sure you have a variety of foods to choose from and mix them up after a while. However, it’s usually better to use formulated feeds, which is rich in calcium for your snails. On an average, it takes 6 to 12 months for snails to mature for market size, depending on the feeding you choose.

If you’ll be giving the snails leftover food or old fruits, make sure you put the food on a plate or pan and remove after a day. This is to prevent the food from decomposing into the ground.

#5 – Marketing

After all, when its time for the baby bird to leave the nest, I mean the grown snails ready for sale, marketing happens. For every product, there’s a demand and people who want them. Now, how do you find them?

Give your business a trademark first. You should also build a website to further brand your business.

Local food markets provide a variety of food products and prospective customers for your snails. It’s also possible that you find the connection to companies who need snails in bulk. If you are breeding large number of snails, you should consider exporting your snails.

Restaurants are also ideal customers. Some restaurants include snails in their menu and certainly need a regular supply of quality snails. Present your snail business to these restaurants and when they approve the quality of your snails, you’ve gotten yourself a customer.

Lastly, use social media to spread the word about your business. Social media is a powerful tool that has brought many into the light and stardom. Use it to bring your business to the awareness of more people.

Startup Cost And Requirements

The start-up cost is required to cover the housing of the snails, their purchase, feeding, transportation and marketing. The cost of starting up a snail business can range from N50,000 to as high as you can afford. It all depends on the size you have in mind and the capacity of your capital at hand.

Let me list out some of the cost below:

Cost number one:

You need to constantly invest in knowledge. Knowledge can be costly. But you can start small and keep upgrading your knowledge as the business grow. Start with Snail Farming Beginners Guide. It cost just N5,000. Order for it now.

Cost number two

You need to construct your own pen. The cost would greatly depend on the number of snails you plan to start with. For a start, N15,000 would serve. You can also use old tires if you plan to just start with a handful of snails, like 10 or 20 snails.

Cost number three

You need to buy point of lay or breeder snails. Price would depend on the the specie of snail and the maturity level. Your budget should be at least around N350 for a matured snail. Multiply that by the number of snails you want to start with to get your actual cost for breeder snails.

Cost number four

Buy formulated snail feed. Although this is optional, it helps to boost the growth of the snails faster than natural snail food. A 25kg bag of this feed can feed can feed 100 snails for 6 months period. The cost is N19,500 but understand that prices can change.

Cost number five

Buy alternative feeds like natural vegetables and fruits. You can arrange to get rotten or waste vegetables and fruits from sellers for free. If you are buying them, you should Budget like N8,000

The cost of starting a snail business is little compared to its returns. The average snail lays about 80 eggs during a reproductive cycle and amazingly, they have about 4-5 cycles in a year. This means one snail is very capable of producing about 400 eggs in a year.

That’s a lot.

Let’s assume that your farm produces 80,000 snails in a year from 200 snails. However, success rate for snail breeding is about 80% of the hatched eggs. If one mature snail sells for N200, you are expected to reap a revenue from 89% of 80,000 eggs, which 64,000. Multiple that by N200 that gives you a revenue of N12,800,000.

Now, that’s a lot of money. Note that you can only achieve this kind of income with just 200 snails in one year. If you are not considering Snail Farming now, I wonder what business you should be thinking of doing that has the kind of success with less capital and efforts. To know more get the Snail Farming Guide.

House Construction for Snail Farming

Pen housing for snails which are known as snaileries depends on whether it’s a large or small scale snail business. It’s usually advisable to start on a small scale and upgrade as the business grows. That way you can raise your own breeder snails, study properly your environmental conditions of your snailery and build a good market to sell your snails before you go bigger.

For a small scale business, you can use a box filled with good soil and covered with wire netting to ward off predators. You can also implement your backyard and build trenches and fences around it to ward off predator visitors.

Moreover, for a large scale business, build a housing pen filled with about ten inches of good soil covered on top with wire netting or mesh. The mesh prevents the snails from escaping and predators from entering. You can also build trenches filled with spent engine oil to avoid ant invasions.

A simple pen should not cost more than N15,000. You can also build with used items you got for free.

Below are the best snail species you can rear:

  1. Achatina Achatina
  2. Achatina Marginata
  3. And Achatina Fulic

Achatina mariginata is the largest of all ground snail species in Nigeria. The matured size can be up to 20cm and lays up to 5 to 12 eggs in one clutch, with lays up to 3 times in one single year. Also, mariginata specie can live up to 10 years. Takes up to 8 to 9 months before it starts laying eggs. And hatches it’s eggs within 21 to 32 days after laying eggs.

While Achatina Achatina is the second largest snail specie in Nigeria. It lays eggs 3 to 4 times in a year, and can lay between 200 to 500 eggs at one time. Achatina starts laying eggs between 6 to 7 months, and it’s eggs hatches in 21 to 32 days.

For Achatina Fulica it has the same similarity with Achatina Achatina, just that it’s smaller, as the third largest snail specie in africa. It can lay between 200 to 500 eggs, and can produce 3 to 4 times a year.

Challenges of Snail Farming

There are certain challenges that can affect your snail business if not properly managed.


Predators include ants, birds, green snails, frogs, snakes and toads. Building trenches around the housing pen can help ward off predators. Also, elevating the pen is a good prevention mechanism.

Soil Type for Snail farming:

In general, the quality of the soil is very important. The soil quality must be good with a balanced pH and hold just enough water, most preferably loamy soil.

The soil is one area that you need to be concerned about when rearing snail as a beginner.

Dwarfism of Snails:

This is majorly caused by overcrowding of snails and not necessarily by genetics. To avoid this, ensure you have enough space for the number of snails you are breeding. Always make plans for more space as your snail colony grows. Don’t leave anything to chance.

Seasons and Climate Change:

The rainy and wet season are the best for snails. During dry and hot seasons, irrigation should be done to moisten the soil and air. It’s also better to begin your snail Farming during the raining season to ensure proper climate and proper environmental impact on your snail.

Infections and Disease:

Diseases can be prevented by ensuring that the soil is not polluted and by providing immune-building food to the snails. You can prevent the spread of diseases by being observant. Spot out the sickly and less productive snails and separate them from healthy ones.


Like every business, snail business has its cons but in the end, the pros always win. My point is don’t let the challenges of owning a snail business stop you from starting yours.

Take note of the different snail breeders. One way of deciding your breeder type is by understanding the market demands. Some snails lay just 5 to 12 eggs at a time, while some lay up to 500 eggs at a time. They all have their different advantages and disadvantages.

Finally, don’t do any business without getting proper information that would guide you the best. For example, you need to know how to get the right snail breeders, and how best to build your snail pen house. Others includes, how to get fast growth feed for your snails, etcetera.

You can also order the Snail Business Guide for only N5,000. It’s an investment that will change your income in snail Farming as a beginner.

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